Experiments indicate that the speed of gravity is minimum 20 billion times c
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"Only fullness takes to clarity and is in deeper where truth inhabits."
Sentences of Confucius
The author presents his gratitude to the scientist doctors Tom Van Flandern of the University of Maryland, US, Helmut Rechenberg of the Institute for the Physical Max Planck of Munich, Germany, Sergei Kopeikin, of the University of Missouri, US, and Paul Marmet and C Couture of the Department of Physics, of the University of Ottawa, Canada. They have done possible this play, with their answers to my consultations.
In 1969 the author, based on the quantum theory of the gravity (0), formulated the theory about that the speed of gravity is greater than the speed of light.
In 1998, the astronomer and scientific Tom Van Flandern carried out various theoretical experiments and esteemed that the minimum speed of gravity is 20 billion times the speed of light.
Tom Van Flandern is a mathematician of the
University of Yale, with a PHD in astronomy, with more than thirty professional
years of exercise, a great number of articles published, as well as author of
two successful astrophysical books. He has been special consultant of the
Global Positioning System, whose assembly of satellites atomic clocks permit observers in Land to determine their position with a
great accuracy. At present is associated investigator of the
(0) Main theories on the gravity are those of Newton, Einstein and quantum. The foundations of the quantum theory of the gravity come, of when the Russian physicists M, Vasiliev and K. Staniukovich published in the book "The Cosmos and its seven states", Moscow, 1967, that the gravity could be a state more of the matter than it is expressed under the aspects of the gravitational graviton-wave of the gravitational field, able one to transmute itself in the electromagnetic field or any other material state and the paper that public in 1968 the Russian scientist Andrei Saharov in that he said that the gravity could come from changes that the presence of the matter in the Universe causes in the zero point of the energy of the vacuum. But, only General Relativity is accepted like a scientific theory on the gravity. Thus, the formulation of Newton on the gravity does not fulfill the requirements of a scientific theory and the quantum gravity theory does not exist as soon as integration between General Relativity and Quantum Physics has not been possible to make. Nevertheless Vasiliev, Staniukovich and Saharov were that proposed like alternative to the General Relativity that the gravity can be the phenomenon of a force of interaction like are the phenomenons produced by electromagnetic, weak and strong fundamental forces that are explained by the Standard Model of the Great Unification, TGU, of the quantum physics, that is the unification between Special Relativity, restricted to inertial systems, and Quantum Mechanics. However, here by quantum theory of the gravity is understood the formulation of which the static gravitational field, responsible of the bodies fallen and celestial mechanics, is caused by the virtual graviton like the static electromagnetic field (electric and magnetic fields uncoupled) is caused by the virtual photon, the weak nuclear field is caused by the virtual bosons W+, W- and Z0, and the strong nuclear field is caused by virtual gluons and that such fields are possible of unification as magnetic field and electrical field were in the electromagnetic field, this and weak field in the electroweak field, and this and strong field in an unique field like in the TGU is anticipated. In addition, such unique field with the gravitational field. This last unification is persecuted in the theory of "Everything", well-known theory M, constructed with base in the quantum theory of Superstrings that particles replace by strings.
Tom Van Flandern is a critic of the theory of the relativity of Einstein that genially puts to the discovered the incapacity of the general theory of the relativity to explain geometrically the gravity. He shows logically that is required a quantum model of gravity (1), where the gravity acquires the character of force of interaction (2), in the sense that is the effect of the transfer of moment in the interaction between the source and the objective of gravitation. The moment (3) that Tom refers is of the lacking objects of mass intrinsic (4). Therefore, the gravity possesses velocity, in a different sense to as is formulated in the theory of the relativity, where is defined like the velocity of propagation of the gravity wave generated by a great asymmetric disruption occurred in the spacetime, for example, by the explosion of a supernova. For Tom is the speed involved at the moment that according to the experiments usually carried out with the electromagnetic force, in general, with the forces but applied by gravity force, results many greater times that the speed of light. Tom in its more exact calculation establishes that the speed of gravity is at least 20 billion times c (5).
This speed of gravity violates the principle of Einstein of the Special Relativity according to which the speed c is a natural limit impossible to surpass. Tom re-examines the alternative of Relativity of Lorentz which compares with that of Einstein and both theories in front of all the results that throw the experiments carried out on special relativity. Tom shows that the alternative of Lorentz corresponds better to the experiments and to a quantum gravity model, besides, that permits the existence of greater speeds that speed of light c.
Therefore, the theory of the relativity has two interpretations: that of field of Lorentz and the geometric of Einstein. Due fail of the geometric explanation of the gravity remains in the first plan the explanation of Newton that with Lorentz and quantum mechanic would allows to develop a quantum gravity theory, since the general relativity and its variant that have arisen have been resisted, during near a century, has to transform them to a quantum mechanical system. Nevertheless, the extraordinary mathematical advance occurred and to the many teams specialized that have tried it. The irresolvable problem of fund is to convert a curvature supposedly of the space-time in gravitons with energy and moment. Still in the noisome mathematical-geometric theory M of the superstrings, the unification between general relativity and quantum only for low energies achieved.
In conclusion, Tom presents as first step to adopt the relativity of Lorentz (6). This historically was formulated before that the special relativity of Einstein. Einstein modified this theory with the constancy of the speed of light for every observer (7). In second step to admit the existence for the gravity of a speed many times that speed c of light.
In this work I will refer to the works of Tom Van Flandern (8), with the commentaries, extensions and some subjects including of the author. I will present first the criticism of the theory of the general relativity of Einstein (9), then the results of the experiments about the speed of gravity and finally the proposal to receive the relativity of Lorentz by the special relativity of Einstein.
(1) This term originates of Max Planck who in 1900 presented that the energy of the electromagnetic wave did not have any continuous but only certain discrete values.
(3) The moment technically defines the velocity of a particle. That is to say, rapidest of the change of the position of a particle with the time. The velocity measures the change of position with regarding the change of time. The moment is equal to this quotient multiplies by the mass of the particle, with which express that the velocity is of the mass of the particle. Indeed, moment is the rapidity of change of the position of the mass of a particle in the space with time, since the particle is its own mass.
(4) Or mass according to fourth moment that corresponds to particles of the substantial phenomenon. The gravity is, on the other hand, a phenomenon of the energy and its moment is equal than energy of graviton / c 2 * its speed.
(5) c is the speed of light, which it esteemed in the empty in 299792458 meters by second.
(6)The theory of the relativity of Einstein includes the theories special and general of relativity. The special theory was the formulation done by Einstein in 1905 of relativity for inertial systems. The general theory exposed by Einstein in 1915 is the generalization of the theory of relativity for gravitational systems. The theories on Special Relativity of greater prestige are those of Einstein, Lorentz and Poincare.
(7) The constancy of the speed of light is a physical property of inertial systems and a simple convention for the not inertial systems. Besides, the constancy of c only is physical principle, in vacuum, for the trips of light of departure-return. Not thus, for trips light in one way. In this case, the constant value of c, in the inertial systems, in vacuum, is a simple convention. In general, in these systems the speed of light is always c, as result of calculation of the average of the values of this speed in two - n ways, provided that the path in which continue the light, form a tie closed, in the place of departure. By this, the invariancia of c constitutes a weak physical principle of the velocity.
(8) The Speed of gravity, Repeal of the Speed Limit. 1999; The Speed of gravity, What the experiments Say. 1998; and Possible new properties of gravity. 1996. Tom Van Flandern.
(9) Theories of the Relativity are the physical theories based on the principle introduced by Poincare according to which the laws of the physics are the same for every inertial system. That is to say, systems do not submit to acceleration. Indeed, systems not submit to the action of forces.
The principles, postulates and laws about the reality formulated by the classic physics, that has like foundation the mechanics of Newton-Galilei and the geometry of Euclides, are valid for the space-time represented by means of systems of reference of orthogonal axes, that is to say, that are cut perpendicularly and formed right angles. This space-time for the Universe is the space-time of Euclides that is described and measured by flat geometry.
The main law of the physics that is the law of inertia, in agreement with Galileo Galilei, its discoverer, postulates that a body in absence of forces will maintain its state of rest or movement uniforms rectilinear. This concept of "inertia" is true and describes with exactitude the Universe whenever the space-time is flat. The Universe considers flat in two cases: 1, Flat, absolutely valid like theoretical abstraction, for an absolutely empty space, that physically does not exist, since the vacuum is always filled with fields, free of its sources. 2. Cuasi flat, that is the physically existing one, within a local region in which the matter and the speed tend to zero.
In Relativity spacetime of a local region is curved Lorentzian(1.1). Not thus, for each infinitesimal lapse of the spacetime at every event since tangent space-time is flat, although is not of Euclides but if of Minkowski. The difference is that in a space-time of Euclides the speed can arrive at infinite while in a space-time of Minkowski the speed cannot exceed speed c.
The idea of the theory of special relativity that in inertial systems the movement distorts spacetime in function at the speed, in such a way that it is impossible to exceed c, Einstein generalize it to gravitational systems, by the principle of equivalence between inertial mass and gravitational mass, according to which the matter distorts spacetime and this one determines as the matter moves.
The second law of Newton defines the inertial mass of a body like the constant value that is from the quotient between applying a force on a body and the acceleration that this experiments. Whereas the law of gravitation of Newton defines the gravitational mass of a body like the constant value that is obtained from the quotient between applying to the gravitational force of a field of gravitation that subject a body and the acceleration that the body experiments due to that field of gravitation. Both classes of masses numerically are equal.
Also, equivalence between inertial mass and gravitational mass empirically allowed Einstein to find that locally, within infinitesimal lapses of the spacetime at every event using the tangent Minkowskian space, it is impossible to distinguish between gravitation and acceleration and inertia and gravitation. The main consequence is that the bodies only put to gravitation move in free fall, that is a movement uniformly accelerated, and that all the bodies of a system only put to gravitation always behave within the system, within infinitesimal lapses, of way equivalent to an inertial system, that is to say, no subject to interaction force nor to gravitation, because in infinitesimal lapses the spacetime is flat and by equivalence between inertial mass and gravitational mass all the bodies in free fall are animated of a uniform speed that produces that among them all are in rest. The other consequence, not so obvious, is that a subject system of reference to a constant, equal acceleration in magnitude and opposed direction of the acceleration that experience the bodies in free fall, always is equivalent to a subject system of reference to the gravity. However, this equivalence, between the accelerated systems and the gravitational systems, is false since in the accelerated systems appear electromagnetic waves.
The systems in "free fall"
follow ways curved no due forces but if to the curvature of spacetime. The
equations of motion in "free fall" of the theory of general
relativity establish that the movement follows the trajectories within the
conical curves that
But the equations of general relativity do not explain the movement of "free fall" that is assumed like the natural movement of the bodies when the matter curves spacetime.
Prior to Tom it is not known that this natural situation, that introduces Einstein, of movement of "free fall" is objected. Nevertheless, the author from the reflection that makes Tom about which it would be the curvature of spacetime the that would explain the "free fall" finds that the theory of general relativity generalize the theory of the inertial movement in the space-time flat to spacetime curved and any reason does not exist to deny the law of the inertia that it establishes that a body left in rest or movement will conserve its state. But, the law of inertia of Galileo for spacetime flat is fulfilled within the infinitesimal lapses of the conical circular trajectories as soon as they are equivalent to subject inertial systems to special relativity and, also, the law of general inertia of Einstein is fulfilled for spacetime curved within the totality of the conical trajectories, since the subject bodies to gravitation will remain animated of the accelerated uniform movement while on them they do not exist interaction forces.
According to the assumption of the theory of general relativity that a body left in spacetime curved naturally remains in "free fall" violates the principle of the Galileo relativity that it establishes that all change of the state of movement or rest of a body will be because of a force. The relativity of Einstein, born from the conservation of this principle of Galileo, it can not contradict it by way of supposing the natural state of the "free fall". What it causes that a body when it passes of a Euclidean space to spacetime of Einstein it acquires the movement of "free fall"? The answer, as Tom says, would be the curvature. How a curvature can cause that change?
Also, according to General Relativity, in the Celestial Mechanic between two bodies does not exist transmition of force, since bodies travel on geodesics, in curve spacetime, and bodies do not push one on other, however the paths are update with the relative change position between the bodies during their translation movements. This change has speed, well-known like the speed of connection of the field of gravitation with the bodies, and a causal link exist between the bodies. But, General Relativity can not explain this link.
Tom Van Flandern finds that the general theory of the relativity provides a mathematical solution as soon as is possible but not a physical explanation of the gravity because violates the principle of causality to the not to be able to link the bodies, that intervenes inside a relation of gravity. Tom, since this perspective, occurs in the need to count with a quantum theory of the gravity and foresees that their particles move with a speed many times that speed of light.
It is frequent to illustrate the conception of the general theory of the relativity on the gravity by means of the analogy with a leaf of rubber, that in this model does the times of the space ï¿½ time with curvature zero, that is to say, flat (1.2). A notoriously large body source, situated on the leaf of rubber does on this an extensive deformation that is said induces to small nearby objective bodies has to roll in orbits elliptic toward the body source of the deformation. This image is similar to as the Sun deforms the 4-M (1.1) space - time of our solar system, producing supposedly that the planets rotate around it.
In the leaf of rubber the objective bodies of the gravity would respond immediately to the local curvature without, therefore, aberration (1.3), for which appears as if the objectives to respond instantly to the source of the gravity, unless in the movement of the source body to happen sudden changes of great importance. Such would be the situation of the solar system (1.4) in the continuous 4-R.
In the leaf of rubber, the field of gravity is identifying with the deformation. The deformation radiates on the surface, in which lies down the source body, on the leaf of rubber and extends in its immediacies. In the case of the solar system, the Sun occupies the central position of the deformation. It is the mass of the Sun, in general the mass of the source body, that produces the deformation of the surrounding space-time, giving rise to a field of gravity local.
An objective body of the gravity, of a field of local gravity, rests on the slope of the wall of its deformation in some point. In our solar system, the objective body can be the Land or any another of the planets.
Nevertheless, said analogy of the leaf of rubber in the region of the deformation with a field of local gravity (1.5) can be bad. Tom examined it, in order to validate its consistency with the phenomenon of the gravity. With such end, two cases are considered: the static case in which the system is in rest and the dynamic case in which the system possesses movement.
(1.1) For the Special Relativity the space-time is the continuous four-dimensions of Minkowski (4-M), which it define, of such form, that the speed of light is constant for every observer and speed c is the superior limit that is insurmountable. The Minkowski continuous is flat just as the Euclides continuous, although this one allows speeds that tend to infinite. In the general relativity the 4-M is modified with the curvature of Riemann and takes the name of 4-R. But, finally in general relativity the continuous tetradimensional is semi Riemannian, that is to say, Lorentzian. The difference between a Riemann continuous is that its tangent space is Euclideo whereas of the continuous tetradimensional of Lorentz (4-L) the tangent space is the continuous tetradimensional of Minkowski. Therefore, within each infinitesimal lapse (chart on the surface of the sphere) of the Lorentzian curve the space-time is 4-M.
(1.2) The structure of the Universe, considered in its totality, also, it can be of positive curvature, pertaining to a space - time spherical, or of negative curvature known as of chair to mount.
(1.3) The aberration, in agreement to the registration performed since an objective star, considered in rest, is the angle with center in the objective and between the position retarded of the star source of some type of force, and the real position of the source, in which said force exercises on the objective star. The source takes in movement.
(1.4) The author considers the Solar System and in general any mass in a continuous geometric 4-R doing part of said continuous.
(1.5) It is localities because covers only a region of the leaf of rubber and not its totality. In general, local is a region in which its events are connected according to the relation of cause-effect. In the Relativity of Einstein, the speed c mediates the relation of cause-effect, since nothing can transmit to upper speed. Therefore, the Lorentzian curvilinear structure of spacetime 4-L always talks about to a local region and not to the structure of spacetime of the Universe. Although, both structures, are solutions of the equations of the field of Einstein. The known solutions more are: 1. Solution Schwarzschild for situation of region local, where the matter is concentrated in the origin, that gives the field of gravitation around stars, and also describes properties of the black holes. 2. The Friedman solution for an isotropic homogenous Universe in which the matter is uniformly distributed and allows to formulate hypothesis about the origin and final fate of the Universe.
In situation, static there is not ambiguity. The leaf of rubber in the region pertaining to the deformation is like the potential of the field of gravity of the body source, and the slope of the wall of the deformation in any point is like the gradient (1.6) of the potential on that point. In the static case, the gradient in a specific point is unique and analogous by force gravitational, although, does not constitute a force.
In the dynamic case are possible two dependent settings that the source move respect to the objective or the objective moves with relation to the source of gravity. It is assumed, in each setting another body in rest.
In the first setting the source body (1.7), of the field of gravity, moves crosses with relation to the leaf of rubber and to the objective of gravity, who remain in rest, for example, on the point t, and consequently fixed on the leaf. Then, the source body and the deformation move respect to the objective body. The leaf of rubber will take some time to adjust its forms to the new locating of the source body. If the adjustment moves like a wave with the speed of light c, and if the point t this to a distance r of the body source, then it retards (1.8) of the propagation takes a time r/c.
The changes induced in the configuration of the 4-R space - time occupied by the Land by the movement of the Sun with respect to the galaxy would have an retard of approximately 8.3 minutes, if the connection speed of gravity is c, by being found the Land 150 million kilometers of the Sun. However, said disruption in our solar system is too much small and practically lacks does not have importance.
If the body source moves to the speed v then t will always suffer a gradient that delays behind the true instant position of the source, approximately equal to the angle vr/c in radians. The gradient cannot aim toward the new position of the source up to now that the wave of adjustment spread since the source to t.
In the second setting the body source remains fixed on the leaf of rubber and the objective body (1.9) has the cross movement. The direction of the gradient of the new point tï¿½ that occupies now the objective body, aimed again toward the instant position of the source body. Consequently, the direction of the gradient is independent of the cross movement of the objective body. Therefore, nothing spread since the source to the objective, the aberration does not apply and apparently, this situation corresponds to the reality.
This it is the situation of the translation of the Land around the Sun whose gradient, of the orbital position, in every instant aims at the true position of the Sun. In addition, it is the situation of the translation of all the planets of the Solar System and of the natural satellites respect to its respective planets. Indeed, the origin aberration absence of gravity is a law of the movement of the stars in our solar system.
(1.6) The gradient is the slope of the deformation of the space - time in a specific point.
The Sun revolves respect to the central of the
(1.8) Retard, in general, is the difference in time enters the moment in which a star generates some type of force on another star and the moment in which such action affects to the last star.
(1.9) The Land moves around of the Sun to a speed of 29 kilometers by second.
The analogy of the leaf of rubber is evil because itself is not dispenses with the action of the gravity pre-existent and creates the illusion that the geometric solution of the gravity is correct. Nevertheless, the geometric interpretation that does the general relativity is analogous to it reached with the leaf of rubber.
In effect, this is a mathematical but impossible solution physically as an explanation of the gravity. The reason is that a gradient, or pending, or a curvature (1.10) cannot induce to a body in rest in a field has to begin to move unless a force act on that body. For example, a truck done not brake, with a great load, placed in the peak of steep pending rolls accelerated in the direction of the chasm. This is because on it acts the force of the gravity not by the curvature of the slope; in absence of this force the truck should remain in the peak in rest by always, also the bodies abandoned in rest in the air should not fall (1.11). This it is because without a force that changes its state of rest, the body does not be right to choose any direction on another. Besides, the law of conservation of the moment (1.12) it violates due to that the moment cannot conserved if the field does not possess split mobile entities.
When the field possesses split mobile entities still if a body is in rest in the field, would begin to move in the direction of the flow of the field, without apparently acted a force. Although yes acts since the force exercised by a body on another is the transfer of moment of a body to another. That is to say, the curvature of the 4-R should be composed by entities which on the one hand would explain the fact that under its action bodies in rest, accelerate and, and on the other hand, in the action of the source on the objective gravity the system conserves the moment. However, this it implies to pass to model of quantum gravity.
Nevertheless, that the acceleration of the bodies is not consequence of the curvature of the spacetime in the general relativity it said that the uniform acceleration of bodies submit to gravity is due to such curvature. This curvature is a geometric entity space-time 4-M deformed by the mass-energy that is different to the combination of the concepts separated of space and time (1.13).
Consequently the general relativity is not a theory that explain the phenomenon of the gravity, although, without greater criticism enjoys the acceptance generalized of the physicists. Its great success is base in formulating that the bodies in movement under the action of gravity would continue the geodesic (1.14) of the continuous curved 4-R logically acceptable explanation.
Nevertheless, due to the difficulty that covers its exact understanding in last instance its truth falls fundamentally in the favorable judgments of the physicists of greater prestige of the world. In a time, it told that Einstein and Eddington in the world only understood the relativity correctly.
(1.10) The supposed curvature of spacetime is a proportional effect to local potential gravity, whose variable part is to its proportional shift to v 2 / c 2, where v is orbital speed. For example, the curvature introduced by the Land is proportional to 10-8
(1.11) The moment for the bodies that possess mass in rest, that is to say, according cuadri vector moment is its mass times its speed.
(1.12) From Galileo it knows that independently of possible existence of a natural state of rest or movement of bodies, the rest or movement of bodies does not exist in absolute terms but that they are relative and symmetrical states. A body will be in rest or movement with respect to another body. In addition, both bodies with respect to other will be able to be taken in rest. But, also, from Galileo it knows that these relative states of rest or movement will persist by always in absence of forces.
(1.13) Space and time mixed for every observer with uniform movement with respect to another. Clifford Johnson. 1999.
(1.14) A geodesic is the shortest or longest line, between two points, in a geometric continuous n-dimensions. The geodesic in 3-galilean continuous is the straight line.
When the einstenian relativists try to describe, the general relativity, as the gravity without retard can affect distant bodies, they often speak of the field of gravity of a body as if was a stiff extension of the same body, that is to say, the massive body configures extensively the space - time.
Of such way, such field "static" by not having parts in movement, does not require of a speed of propagation unless some crucial thing change in the body that drastically alter the configuration native.
The objection to this picture is that it is acausal. Nevertheless, of some way, the moment is transfer since a body of gravity source to another objective.
It is impossible that a static field without mobile parts can transfer moment. This is the dilemma of the analogy of the "leaf of rubber". Which is the cause that a leaf of rubber or the spacetime by being curved, be able to a stationary objective body placed on the slope of such curve to begin to move it toward the source body? Which is the source of the change of the moment? The field of gravity is regenerated continuously, or this frozen one?
To retain the causality is necessary to distinguish two different meanings of the term "static". In absolute sense, a thing does not change due to that does not possess mobile parts. In relative sense, a thing remains equal instant to instant by the continuous 4-R replaces of all its parts. This difference illustrates it a fall of water. If this frozen field is static according to the first, sense but if this fluent is static in the second sense. Both waterfalls are essentially, in every instant, the same thing but the waterfall fluent can transfer moment, since this fact of entities that spread.
For the field of gravity if the field was static frozen do not there would be aberration but do neither link causal between the source and objective bodies of the gravity. If the field is static fluent its velocity of transmission should cause aberration or retard, but the absence observed of both quick demand one more speed than that speed of light.
Which is the nature of the field of gravity? The principle of causality requires that field of gravity be static fluent.
In the static case which would be the mechanism of to update the field of gravity proper to the movement of the source body?. Still in a stiff bar, the disruption caused in its structure to be pushed in an extreme itself is not transmitted to another extreme until a wave transport spreads along its entire length.
In a gravity static frozen field, two mechanisms would be required one for carver the spacetime when the body source approaches and another to annul the curve when the body source moves away.
This is because this frozen the curve in the spacetime, and does not necessarily recover its original condition when the cause stop. Besides, none cause does not remain available for the execution of another process.
No there is reason of that the objective body, initially in rest, now it accelerates through the curvature of the frozen spacetime. Neither, there is cause know of as quickly the objective body receives information updated about the correct direction in which this body must will accelerate to continue such curvature. Additionally the analogy with the leaf of rubber does not explain as is able the gravity to act a great deal more quick than the light.
The road of the Sun around the barycentre (1.15) of the solar system induced by the planetary disruptions, cause excursions on more than one million kilometers, and the barycentre some times it found physically out of the body of the Sun.
The field of gravity of the Sun continuously should update in the entire distances to the infinite. Surely, this updating requires the propagation of agents since the Sun. In addition, as the Sun this continuously accelerating to its objective of gravity, the regeneration of the distant field likewise should be a continuous process that requires spreading.
The need that the field of gravity flow is clearer if we suppose a binary black hole, with the two stars paralyzed in orbits elliptic an around the other. In this case, we will have the field created by each star should be update continuously by the changing contribution since the field in orbital of the other star. How each field knows that it should do if not communication with its hidden body source behind the horizon of events exists? If the curvature of the space - time in a point near the black hole pertaining to the first star returns, zero because the black hole of the second crashes this likewise distant one?. What to do in any point not zero once the second black hole goes back?
If each star, that acts like source of gravity , is forced to be accelerated, How is able each point of the field, with a certain curvature, to experience exactly the same acceleration as the source, doing that the entire field (to infinite?) appear frozen and stiffly united to the origin of the respective black hole?
On the other side, the disruptions caused by the other star are different in every point of the other field, of such way, that each point of such field in the spacetime would experience a different acceleration. Without communication, How is able the entire system to remain intact and coherent? The conclusion for the einstenian relativists is that of that the field of gravity is acausal and paradoxical. This is unsustainable.
The gravity fields continuously should regenerate in the same way as it does a fall of water fluent. Therefore they should be constituted by entities that spread Which is the nature of such entities? Which is its speed? That this fact the space-time? Can it quantize the space - time? Can it quantize a curvature?
(1.15) Barycentre is the center of gravity. The barycentre of the solar system is different of the Sun.
The binary black hole provides another, more direct demonstration about that the changes in the gravitational fields should spread quicker than the speed of light. Ultimately, the einstenian relativists propose that such changes, although referred the radiation process, that is to say, to the phenomenon of generation of the gravitational wave, they will seem to act instantaneously in the "near field", but eventually shows its true retard is equal to the speed of light in which distant field" (1.16), that this beyond ours present ability to observe.
This behavior dual is to prevent the logical need so that the changes appear as instant increasing the distances, still to the infinite. Nevertheless, this only prevents certain types of paradoxes.
But if can nothing escape the event from horizons on account of that nothing can spread quicker than the light, How does the gravity exist out of the black hole? In the binary black hole, How can each black hole to orbit around of the other?
The answer of the einstenian relativists is that the field around the black hole was frozen before of the star collapse behind the horizon of events and will remain in that been by always, that as was shown is impossible.
Of such way, the gravity fields still static should regenerate through of entities that spread to a high speed greater than of the speed of light although not infinite, since in such case the phenomenon of gravity would be a causal. This is the true speed of gravity.
An experimental indication against the existence of the curvature of the space- time exists derived from the orbital trips around the Land.
Two ships, put in the same orbit, to certain distance one of the other and connected by a cable, continue a path in different straight line from its orbital road, contrary to what the analogy with the leaf of rubber implies for the movement of bodies on its surface deformed.
This find of the spatial aeronautics itself does not understand with the supposed curvature of the space next time to the Land.
Ultimately, experimental evidence exists obtained from the interferometer of neutron (1.17) of the failure about the geometric principle of equivalence of the gravity with the curvature of the spacetime (1.18). The experiments carried out with the interferometer of neutron confirm strongly the fundamental principle of the Relativity of local equivalence between a uniform acceleration and a field of gravity (1.19). However, their results are incompatible with the weak principle of geometric equivalence (1.20), because the effects of interference in quantum mechanics depend on the mass. This due to that the nature of the wave of neutron depends on the moment of the neutron, that is the Neutron times their speed. The entire phenomenon depends on the mass, through the length of wave, an intrinsic characteristic of the quantum mechanics.
This experiment undermines the purely geometric point of view since confirms the applicability of the quantum mechanics still in the presence of gravity, including it referred dependence not - geometric of the mass.
(1.16) Division of gravity field in nearby field and distant field originates of the theory of the electrodynamics of which has been adopted for the gravity by the supposed resemblance between gravity and electromagnetic fields. This resemblance is based fundamentally in ours doubtless knowledge about that the gravity forces and electromagnetic forces are proportionally inverse to the square of the distance and direct to product of the masses, if is the gravity, or of charges, if is the electromagnetism.
Of the theory electrodynamics, the electrodynamics potential generates the electromagnetic fields, compound of photons. The electromagnetic field has two regions, first is the nearby field and second is the distant field. At the same time, the region of the nearby field it subdivides in the reactive nearby field and in the radioactive nearby field. In this manner, the field electrodynamics covers the reactive nearby field, radioactive nearby field (known as region of Fresnel) and the distant field call region of Fraunhofer. These three fields do not separate abruptly, but they mix inside its limits. Virtual-real photons form the nearby field and real photons compose the distant field. The charges in movement accelerated radiate the real photons. Therefore, the waves totally formed are radiates and spreads in the distant field.
The reactive nearby field exists in every space around a source of electricity. This it formed by independent magnetic and electric fields, that is to say, done not mix. These fields create for reaction to a dominant alternate current of electricity. This field exists very close to the source, inside a radio less than one length of wave. The power of the density of this field grows toward its limit with the region Fresnel, but decays quickly inside a distance with a radio of some few times the length of the wave.
The radioactive nearby field, with regard to the source, begins approximately to one length of wave. This field form by magnetic and electric fields that combine to form circular waves, with relation to the source. These waves spread toward out. The power of the density of this field is more or less constant. This region of Fresnel is of preformation of the wave that it radiates in the region of Fraunhofer. For the case of the planets, this nearby field extends inside a radio of thousands of kilometers.
The distant field, with regard to the source, begins subsequently of the region of Fresnel, to a distance that, Chat Capss, esteems 3 times the length of the wave that it radiates. This field is formed in a predominant way by flat waves, that is to say, locally uniform distributions of the intensity of the electric field and of the intensity of the magnetic field, in flat cross streets to the direction of the propagation of the wave. The power of the density of this field diminishes with the square of the distance. This power distributes in a series of maximums and minimums, to the way of a sine function.
The theory on the gravitation post-of Einstein appoints like nearby field of gravity to the preformation of gravity dynamic field, composed by virtual-real gravitons, or the field of preformation of the gravity wave. The distant gravity field is the field of radiation of the wave of gravity, composed by real gravitons, predicted by Einstein, which should spread on or inside the cone of Light.
(1.17) Experimental system that adds, in a device of convergence, the waves of minimum two rays of neutron, generated different from directions that travel through of vacuum.
(1.18) See Greenberger & Overhauser, 1980.
(1.19) Nevertheless, Patrick Bangert registers an experiment relating to form of a drop of water in a gravity field. This form is ellipsoid according the vertical axis due to difference of the force on its tips and, on the other hand round under the action of a uniform acceleration (to see its article: On the underlying principles of the main theories of the World: General Relativity and Quantum Theory. 19/11/95.
(1.20) It knows like the weak equivalence between mass - energy and the curvature of the spacetime.
The Newtonian gravity spreads with an infinite speed. Then, How does the general relativity pass to the Newtonian gravity in the weak fields, or in low speed? The answer is that the conservation of the angular moment (1.21) is implicit in the general relativity.
Nevertheless, the finite speed of propagation of gravity and the conservation of the angular moment are opponents. Of course, the general relativity had to say that the gravity is not a force (1.22) that spreads in the classical sense, and that the aberration does not apply.
In it practices, the general relativity suppresses the aberration through the calls "potential retarded". In the electromagnetism, these are calls "potential Lienard-Wiechert"(1.23). Nevertheless, none of the forms of the potentials retarded give the aberration, this is the cross movement between the source and the objective of gravity during the time of propagation of the light that, according to the einstenian relativists, equals time of propagation of the gravity.
To ignore the aberration is logically
equivalent to adopt an infinite speed of the propagation of the gravity
force. However, the einstenian relativists with the
calls "potential retarded" emphasize in the density of the
distribution of the field or in the existing mutual distance between the source
and the objective gravity. These potentials taken as if to correspond to the
position retarded of the source, of such way as if to be adopted a finite
speed of propagation for the gravity force. Nevertheless, the aberration
that is the main consequence of a finite speed of propagation of the
gravity, in the majority of the applications in these potentials is absent. In
addition, that handy trick then permits that the theory of the relativity with
"propagation of the gravity to the speed of light apparently equals to
the theory of
In reality in short when the equations of
the gravity are compared so much of the general relativity as of the Newtonian
use an infinite speed of the propagation of the gravity force with
aberration equal to zero. In the equations of
(1.21) Angular moment is the quantity that results to multiply the mass of a body in orbit by its speed of translation and the radio of its orbit.
The step of equations of general relativity to
(1.23) In general, the retards have that to see with the existence of a cross force if is a matter of phenomenon of aberration, the composition of the middle and the distance. Particularly, the retards of a potential this linked with the action to distance of an electric charge on another, with regard to a point of origin that serves of reference.
The electric charges fill the surrounding space. A charge in rest occupies the space with virtual photons, inside of the electrostatic potential scale. A charge when moves with constant velocity, so much in direction as in magnitude, that is to say, when generates a stationary current, occupies the space three-dimensions with virtual photons, inside what the vectorial electrostatic potential space. A charge in movement accelerated full the space with radiation energy-moment, that is to say, with real photons. Therefore, the potentials are the distribution inside the space of the photons that a charge radiates. These potentials are the distribution of the charge. Nevertheless, inside the formalism of the electrodynamics theory the phenomenon of radiation only recognize for the charges that produce real photons.
Maxwell unified the scalar and vectorial electrostatic potentials in the potential electrodynamics when he introduced time-dependence. The retarded potentials of Lorentz are the result of that he introduced the causality to the potential electrodynamics, that is to say, when Lorentz explained a potential in a position x, in a time t in function to the potential in a position x1 in a time t1 such that is previous to t. The potentials of Lienard-Wiechert are the potential electrodynamics expressed as four - vectors, in a continuous space-time of Minkowski. The retarded potentials of Lienard-Wiechert are the potentials of Lienard-Wiechert expressed in the form of retarded potentials of Lorentz. Therefore, these retarded potentials of Lienard-Wiechert are the result of the radiation of a punctual charge, just as the electron or an atomic nucleus, in movement accelerated, on a line of the world, that progressively spreads in the empty space with the speed c and occupies, four dimensions, of the space - time of Minkowski.
The great failure of the geometric conception on the gravity to the not to be able to explain like the curvature in the continuous 4-R can accelerate the bodies. This united to the break with the principle of causality. In addition, under the evidence of the experiments, before referred, that aim toward the independence between curvature and path in the movement of the bodies, as well as enters the mass and the curvature impose to resort to the theory of the physical field of kind for re understand the gravity.
Here it is necessary to distinguish between the geometric field of the curved space-time of the theory of the general relativity of Einstein and the material field that as the electromagnetism possesses a quantum composition.
This step also implies the step to understand the gravitational force between two bodies like the material effect caused by the at the moment interchange through the gravitational field that makes the interaction among them. And not like the fictitious force that is from the gradual approach of both bodies when moving within geodesic of a variety the curved space-time whose geodesics converge in a same point.
How a material force spreads?. The interpretation done since the quantum theory of the field continues providing the best answer. The change since the equations from the field to the equations of movement is analogous to go since a potential to a force by taking a gradient. The process of "to take a gradient" (1.24) is unique and unambiguous, only after has them determined if the distant fields are according to the instant directions or on the contrary with the directions retarded of their sources. This election has an immediate effect on the direction of the resultant force.
Since 100 years ago, according to all the available observations it chose the instant action of the field of gravity as the correct thing. Nevertheless, at present not this badly to say that the instant action of the gravity is consistent with the propagation of the gravity to the speed c. However, this speed requires considering retarded fields and the management of the directions of the fields being these very important directions.
The retards by distances or the distributions of matter are not important in front of the effects of the retards due to the directions of the sources of gravity. In fact, if the fields of gravity and electromagnetic are compare we will have, The Sun emits just light as emits gravity. The light forms a field according to inverse elevate to square of the distance around the Sun, exactly as the gravity does it.
For the field of gravity, the gravitational force is the gradient of the gravitational potential. Analogous for the field of light, the intensity of the light is the gradient of the amplitude speed of light.
An observer in rest can do a map one to one between potential gravity and amplitude of the light. In addition, also he can do a map one to one for the gravity force and the intensity speed of light. For an observer in movement, the difference of these fields respect to the observer in rest in any place is a factor constant.
However, while that the speed of light is experimentally c in the case of the speed of gravity still there is not an experiment that the scientific community accepts favorite. Nevertheless, in September of 2002, Sergei Kopeikin demands to have measured the speed of gravity. Meantime, that experiment does not confirmed is valid to consider the two settings that Tom appoints setting light and setting gravity.
(1.24) To take a slope.
The light radiated by the Sun generates a field whose intensity goes disappearing with the inverse of the square of the distance along the radio since the position retarded of the Sun. The position retarded correspond to the moment in which the light was emitted, according to the position of its arrives to the Land, which is after the position retarded of the Land coincident with said emission, due to that it spreads with the speed c, such phenomenon known as retard of transit (1.25).
That direction of the field, taken since the Sun for an observer in the Land, is really different in the space that the direction of the field that would see an observer in a orbit in rest with respect to the Sun. This not is an optical illusion since for the observer in the Land applies the phenomenon of aberration while the hypothetical observer in rest would detect to the Sun in a space coincident with his instant position.
For the observer, since of the Land that orbit the Sun, the gradient of the amplitude of the field of light, aims toward the position of the Sun retarded and not toward its corresponding instant position of the light arrive to the Land. The image of the Sun that arrives at the Land does not only light up to be in a different place between the stars with respect to its instant position. But the moment transferred to the Land through the pressure of the light of the Sun, that is to say, the force of the pressure of the radiation, acts along the radio since the position retarded of the Sun, and not true position of the Sun.
This is known effect "Poynting-Robertson so weak to move the planets but very effective on the particles of the size of the dust and the artificial satellites.
(1.25) The retard of traffic it measures according the angle with center in a star source and between the position retarded of the star objective, just as the star source generates some type of force, and the real position in which said forces reaches the star objective. The star source took in rest and star objective in movement.
If the gravity spread instantly, then an observer in the Land would detect that field instantly. If on the other hand he was, the combination of a finite speed so much of propagation of the field of gravity as of the movement of the observer the result would be that the field would appear with a retarded for said observer. Particularly, analogous to the setting light, if the gravity spread with the speed c, the gradient of the potential of the gravitational field, just as an observer in the Land would see it, would aim toward the position retarded of the Sun exactly coincident with that of the moment of emission of the light. This would be also the moment of emission of the gravity. Therefore, the gravity should present the speed of light.
If the gravity spread, since the source to the objective, with a finite speed should present cross aberration and to produce a similar effect "Poynting-Robertson ".
Nevertheless, the general relativity of Einstein ignores the cross aberration of the gravity, that is the main effect of the retard. This is the logical equivalent to adopt in this theory the instant propagation of the gravitational field just as Maxwell does for the case of the electromagnetism. Although, in both be declared that the gravity and the light have the speed c.
The parallelism that is done between the setting of the light and the setting of the gravity, in reality binds two phenomena that do not have a similar nature. Indeed the light is the demonstration of the dynamic phenomenon of the electromagnetic field composed by the real photon - wave, while the gravity, that produces the translation of the planets, is the demonstration of the phenomenon of the gravity static potential, of static gravity, composed of virtual gravitons. But both fields are compound of particles with moment and if they have finite speed then must to cause similar effects. Really Tom Van Flandern uses such quantum quality of static and dynamic fields for to derive necessary aberration caused by both if the speed of virtual and real particles of electromagnetism and gravity is c.
The fundamental thing is that the intuitive concept of the author about that the gravity possesses a greater speed that c, continues being valid. This concept based on the law that establishes that a particle less inertial than another possesses a greater speed. As the graviton is less inertial that the photon, that is to say, offers smaller resistance for be in movement, then the graviton will owe to possess a greater speed that photon. The author discovered this law and the author formulated it in 1969. According is law the particle that most tend vanish must to have the maximum speed in the nature. This particle maybe be graviton.
Consequently, the previous analysis of Tom Van Flandern, in the judgment of the author, is totally acceptable as a magisterial approximation to the elaboration of a physically acceptable and logical solution of this complex theme. The reason is that although the static gravitational field does not transport real gravitons however transports virtual gravitons. Therefore, the aberration phenomenon that indicates Tom would have to exist as a result of a finite speed of virtual gravitons. This would cause the transverse force that indicates Tom, on the stars in translation around the solar barycentre (18 of December 2003).
The point of view of Tom is that the gravity apparently is a static field but really is a dynamic phenomenon, without to distinguish real or virtual with the arguments that, in general, the field of gravity it updates instant to instant in all the distances to the infinite. In particular, Tom reclaims the fact that the Sun moves around the barycentre of the solar system, which produces that the Sun not this in rest with regarding it. Tom assures that such updating to occur with a finite speed would do impossible the conservation of the angular moment that would cause the effect of aberration of gravity in the orbits of the celestial bodies around of others. Said aberration this verified that it does not exist. (December 24/2002).
The Dr. Steve Carlip, a prestigious American physical specialist in theory of fields, assumes by the world majority current of scientific einstenian relativists, the criticism of the theory of the existence of the phenomenon of aberration in the transmission of the gravity between the Sun and the planets, if the same occurs with the speed c. He rejects based on that this is a phenomenon of the gravity potential. There is not radiation between the bodies bound inside a relation of gravity, in the same way as not radiation in the transmission of the electric or magnetic force between electric charges in rest or in movement rectilinear uniform. Therefore, the gradient of the potential gravity field, in any point of the field of gravity of the solar system, aims at the real position of the Sun, because is the potential freeze of Tom.
This well supported criticism of Carlip nevertheless does not add a new thing to the bad conception of Einstein about of gravity. In last instance, this criticism is bases on the principles of the general relativity of equivalence between a system of gravity and one inertial and between a system of gravity and one accelerated uniform, within infinitesimal lapses of a local region. They exactly have constituted the crucial nucleus of disagreement between the theories of the general relativity and the quantum theory. Due that when it incorporates such equivalences to the quantum mechanics the reality is denied of all the fundamental particles, as a result of that the reality of the gravitons remains depending of the observer, of a specific system of reference, losing thus the graviton its objective character. The author said it, in 1969, when he formulated his theory on the speed of gravity greater than c. On the other hand, the author calls the attention about the geometric foundation of the equivalence between a gravitational system and one inertial system that is not another different one from that all curve considered within infinitesimal lapses is straight because the infinitesimal geometric limit of the curve is the straight line.
Author finds that the foundations of General Relativity are defined in the conditions of the geometric limit, that is the flat space, within a physics for curved spaces. Thus this scheme can be generalized and to maintain that the equivalence between the deterministic law and the probabilistic law exists as soon as the deterministic law is the limit of the probabilistic law and consequently when applying it to the physics to maintain the equivalence between the Classic Mechanics and the Quantum Mechanics in the limit of Newton. The nexus between the general and the particular is the logical cause that the curve is straight or that the inertial mass is equivalent to the gravitational mass, etc. But, the classic physics did not understand that the gravitational force is only a particular case of the force in general and therefore necessarily the gravitational mass is equivalent to the inertial mass, as soon as both masses are the quotient between the force applied to a body and the acceleration caused in their relative state of movement and not simple chance. If in agreement with Newton the inertial mass = force / acceleration and the gravitational mass = gravitational force / gravitational acceleration then Can be different masses?. It is not understood either as this equivalence is considered as a deep and significant fact of the physics of the world and serves indeed so that General Relativity formulates it like the strong principle of equivalence, the field equations of Einstein are its personification and Einstein states that the gravity is not a force but the geometric effect of spacetime. Such asseveration is based on the expression used by Einstein of inertial mass * acceleration = gravitational mass * intensity of gravitational field, that due to the equality between both masses allows to deduce acceleration = intensity of gravitational field, and according to Einstein it means that the gravitational acceleration is property of spacetime, mathematical and no ontological result since as much the mass as the force physically follows present. The mass this present because is the object of the acceleration and, also, in agreement with Einstein, the mass is the source of that contradictory "intensity of gravitational field" since this field is for him geometry of spacetime. And the force this present since it is the cause of the acceleration and that the magnitude of the mass does not take part in her. Surely by this exasperating ontological reason to Einstein was "pedant", the conclusion, that yes with full meaning, of a physicist that: "the acceleration of the fall of a body increases to its mass of gravitation proportionally and diminishes in equal proportion to its mass of inertia", indeed the foundation that the gravitational acceleration is same for all body independently of the magnitude of its mass but no of the existence of the mass nor, either of the force, since it is indeed the simultaneous action of the same gravitational force, in quality and magnitude, but in opposite address, of a certain field of gravitation, on the inertial and gravitational masses of a body that produces the mutual cancellation of these masses in its gravitational acceleration. The author discovers that this ontological presence of the mass and the force in the physical phenomenon of the gravity is manifest when the free fall finalizes by the encounter of the body that falls, for example, with the Earth surface. Then the force of reaction that, in agreement with the third law of Newton, the Earth surface exerts on the body is well-known as the weight of the body. This force of reaction, that allows to determine the equivalence between the inertial and gravitational masses of a body, specifically determines that the gravity is a force and not a geometric property of spacetime. In general, the author also discovers the relative rest like the natural mechanical state of the bodies since in inertial systems when the interruption of the relative linear uniform movement takes place it generates a reaction force, equivalent to the weight although of inertial and non gravitational origin, that the state of relative rest of the body restores. This fact implies that a previous force, in a time last, acted over the body and changes its state of rest relative to rectilinear relative movement uniform in relation to another one. Also, that still if spacetime is curved it requires of a force that causes the free fall. In this case the conservation of the inertia of the bodies would explain its trajectory within geodesies agreed with the curvature of spacetime, of a certain local region, but not same relative movement. The error that commits General Relativity is supposition that the inertia of a body in spacetime of Lorentz animates it of the movement of free fall. This error does not come from the classic physics since a body in spacetime of Galilei will inertial maintain its state of relative rest or rectilinear relative movement uniform. This error is genuine of Einstein. The author introduces a at least complementary alternative scene to the one of the General Relativity in which geodesies in spacetime of Lorentz would determine that the gravitational force that it causes the free fall of the bodies, in the presence of a gravitational field, is an attractive force. Thus the gravity would be, if the General Relativity is conserved partially, from spacetime that would explain the attraction and from a force of interaction that would explain the movement of free fall.
In addition, the author observes is not
certain that the planets move around of the Sun animated of
movement-accelerated uniform with regard to it. Consequently, the author asks
How can apply the model of the general relativity to the solar system?. The einstenian relativists will
say that these orbits elliptic more far of the movement in circle they cause
are waves of gravity. But, the real problem is, how can apply to the phenomenon
of gravity, of the movement of the planets in orbits elliptic, a model of
gravity, based on the law of inertia, in its general formulation for curved spacetime?.
How it admits the accelerated movement does not uniform, of the movement of
planets in elliptical orbits?. Kepler and
The author finds that, as happens in our Solar System, the stars have generally elliptical orbits, with respect to others, consequently, in agreement with General Relativity it is required to introduce another complementary cause to the curvature of espacetime since that only in limit conditions the orbits are circulars. Such cause would be some class of interaction force. Therefore, General Relativity in if same is insufficient and, at least, it requires to complement it with a quantum theory of the gravity. This constitutes an evidence against which the gravity is explained from the geometric limit of the curved spaces.
Tom Van Flandern in the formulation of its theory on the speed of gravity greater than c, assumes the quantum theory of the gravity, as the consequence of its demonstration that the theory of the general relativity violates the principle of causality. On the other hand, also, is certain that in the translation of the planets around the Sun the effect of aberration should produces exactly due to that the orbits are elliptic, question that the author treated in its play "The Gravity" of 1996.
Since aberration is not detected the speed of gravity must surpass c, which is physically possible because the virtual graviton does not possess mass in agreement to the fourth moment but if according to the first moment, as the author shows in its work "The theory holistic of the matter". Neither, the graviton real possesses mass, but is clear that I am referring to that gravity static field causes the phenomenon of the Universal gravitation. The exchange of the virtual gravitons produces the gravity phenomenon, when two or more bodies interact in a relation of gravity. Have very in account that the virtual particles are the carriers of the forces in the quantum theory on the fields. And that according to Carlip the gravitational field is not physical but geometric. From this point of view of purely geometric of the static gravitational field is impossible refutes the thesis of which it is required of a superluminal connection between bodies interacting through virtual gravitons, so that the phenomenon of the aberration does not appear. For Carlip the virtual graviton does not exist. For Carlip gravitational waves exist. Those waves nothing must do with the gravitation. For Carlip such waves are the cuadrupole radiation, global phenomenon of the space-time. This cuadrupole radiation absolutely nothing must do with the gravitational connection between bodies. Have very in account, that a thing is the virtual gravitational emission of the bodies, required in the explanation of the gravity like the phenomenon of the interaction between bodies through virtual gravitons and another very different thing is the radiation of gravitational waves considered in the General Relativity and that a thing is the quantum theory of the gravity like the virtual interaction or real gravitational force between bodies and another very different thing is the theory of the gravitation of General Relativity like the effect of the free of forces movement of the bodies within geodesics that converge in a same point in a curved variety closed space-time. This way, the quantum theory in that the measurement of Tom Van Flandern is supported is not the arisen one from the General theory of Relativity when in it is introduces the radiation of the gravitational waves and that it leads to the real graviton but of geometric origin. Either, the finding that makes Tom of the superluminal speed of the virtual graviton does not constitute a definitive rupture with Special Relativity because the static gravitational field does not transport energy that it can be detected directly and consequently this superluminal speed does not violate the maximum limit of c for such transport. But, it constitutes a crucial advance in favor of the true quantum theory of the gravity, arisen in the middle of 1960 and that the author defends since then. In the first place by its quantitative result in relation to the speed of the virtual graviton and in the first place by its necessary breaking with the theory of General Relativity with respect to its geometric conception of the static gravitational field. For these reasons, the findings of Tom are scientifically top. (29 of June of 2004).
The refusal that Carlip does of the theory of Tom is resolved finally in the authority with which counts, in the scientific community, the general relativity in front of the quantum gravity theory.
This authority is so improbable that the quantum physics at expense of its integration with the special relativity sacrifices the objective character of the reality, holds to the principle of not locality, for which recognizes it as a simple substrate, that only acquires properties and decision in virtue to the observer and to the measurement. And in its pyrrhic integration with the general relativity, in low energies, that poor substrate, in which remained relegated the reality, is sacrificed still more so that finally be the geometric form without content that replace it. (10 of January of 2003).
On January 24, 1996, on behalf of FAQ, On January 24, 1996, on behalf of FAQ, that until 1994, when Matt Mc Irvin contradicted which had hitherto held that the speed of virtual particles did not exceed c, on "How do gravitons escape from a Black Hole?" Drs Steve Carlip and Matthew P Wiener stated: "We don't yet have a good quantum theory of gravity, and it's risky to predict what such a theory will look like. But we do have a good theory of quantum electrodynamics, so let's ask the same question for a charged black hole: how can a such an object attract or repel other charged objects if photons can't escape from the event horizon? The key point is that electromagnetic interactions (and gravity, if quantum gravity ends up looking like quantum electrodynamics) are mediated by the exchange of *virtual* particles. This allows a standard loophole: virtual particles can pretty much "do" whatever they like, including travelling faster than light, so long as they disappear before they violate the Heisenberg uncertainty principle." (How do Gravitons escape from a Black Hole?). We agree, virtual photons and gravitons traveling above c. The contribution of these two great scientists, Drs. Carlip and Wiener is great because they gave strongly on target, since that they took the virtual photon, a particle sufficiently known, while virtual graviton is still a hypothetical particle. They do not prove or provide evidence on superluminal speed of the virtual photon, so, the author draws the conclusion that they were based on the experimental discovery by Dr. Nimtz, in 1992, only prior to that date, antecedent known by the scientific community. This Statement of Carlip-Wiener remained unnoticed, until very recently, until it lost the notion of when it was given; the author was confused at first and behind rigorously monitoring found that is relevant from 2010 and thanks Joseph W. Lazio, who from 1995 collects the concepts from the FAQ, he could determine the date exactly. However, with the discovery that the speed of the neutrino, not virtual but real particle, exceeds c, I found my error on June 29, 2004, stating that virtual particles do not carry energy to superluminal speed. ¿How that no. Throughout, a chain, toward the infinite, through the links annihilation-creation of virtual particles, occurring in a vacuum, the virtual photons and virtual gravitons spend the period of uncertainty (This chain, in the words of Dr. Tom Van Flandern is a wave or Dr. Nimtz is the evanescent wave or Dr. Walker is the preformation of the wave in the near field). Therefore, the energy of potential energy of static fields was transported and, accordingly, represents information. This happy discovery is the result of my hypothesis that neutrinos escape from black holes, that I proposed in Disqus forum of Universe Today, from November 17, 2011 (Neutrinos Still Breaking Speed Limits. DISQUS-Guillen ). In developing this hypothesis, I intend to publish, in the literature search, I found the statements of Drs. Carlip and Wiener, 1996. This is wonderful (November 28, 2011).
In General Relativity the gravitational wave is a ripple of the spacetime in all directions.
The author emphasizes the very serious problem of the physics of the wave of the spacetime itself that would be the gravity wave according to Einstein.
The movement of the particles and the propagation of the electromagnetic waves happens within a frame that is the spacetime with dimensions x, y, z, t.
Which is the frame of the gravity wave?. How it is possible to speak of wave? Speed? Moment? Impulse? Inertia?
Really the General Relativity requires elaborating a new theory of the knowledge and inside its frame a new cinematic and dynamic physical theories for define the concepts above. This does not exist but nobody has been aware of this terrible lack.
The first concept that is necessary to change is geometric one since that always the variation of n dimensions generate n+1 dimensions. Thus null dimension generates one dimension, one dimension generates two dimensions, two dimensions generate three dimensions, three dimensions generate four dimensions, etc. Since spacetime has four dimensions it requires introducing a geometric pentacontinuous frame for to describe the gravitational wave of Einstein.
In order to illustrate the geometric problem of gravitational wave of Einstein an example is the waves generated by earthquakes and their effect in the Earth curvature. The earthquakes happen in three dimensions. Their waves in four dimensions and the changes on the Earth curvature in three dimensions since the continuum of Earth curvature have the dimensions of latitude, length, and altitude. But the waves of the curvature of a three-dimensional object as the Earth happen in four dimensions. Also let us to suppose that if intelligent inhabitants exist in three dimensions then they never would explain the change in the Earth curvature since they would lack of the dimension of the time. But they could measure the changes in the metric tensor caused by the waves of the earthquake between two geographic points, in the continuums of 3-dimensions, 2-dimensions or 1-dimension. Thus, they could measure the changes in the metric tensor, for example, in the continuums with coordinates of latitude, length, and altitude or latitude and length or only length between Berlin and Washington.
Really, equations of Einstein of the static field of gravitation are nonlinear but by the difficulty of extend them to the dynamic field of gravitation, a linear approach was elaborated, with fundament in the considerations done by him in 1916, that is applied to the propagation of the gravitational wave in spacetime flat of Minkowski and to weak gravitational fields. Thus General Relativity replaces gravitational wave by the change in the metric of flat space-time to account for a passing gravitational wave. If the gravitational wave is considered to be travelling along a vector on the z axis, the metric has x and y coordinate changes only. This is the restricted effect of gravitational waves in the length of the space-time interval s given by ds2 = -c2 dt2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2, taking t and z fixes. Thus it is comparing the oscillation in x and y axis of the relative locations of two test masses. Really this does not measure the gravitational wave propagation. But, General Relativity measures in 4-dimensions the effect of the physical phenomenon of the gravitational wave that would occur in 5-dimensions.
Other radical consequence is that with physical experiments is impossible to measure anything on gravity wave because is impossible from four dimensions to access fifth dimension.
But the greatest problem is the conceptual change of all categories of tetra to penta physics of the movement and its philosophical consequences.
The methodological order would be first to elaborate a new philosophy of the world and then new physical conception on world. (December 17, 2005).
The author has the work Gravitational waves in 5-D received and accepted by various scientific groups in the World. Actually this work is examined by referees (April 5, 2006).
Tom carries out four theoretical experiments where is tested that the speed of gravity surpasses the speed of light.
The author in turn proposed the execution of two experiments, one on the tides and the other on the ephemeredes of the planets, with the purpose to measure the speed of gravity. In the prior considerations to its execution in both the author found that the speed of gravity necessarily surpasses the speed of light.
The six experiments present in this numeral.
The base of the experiments of Tom is the following considerations:
1. The light of the Sun presents aberration as a result of that spends 8.3 minutes in arriving to the land. By this reason, the true position of the Sun it finds to 20-second arch to the east of the position in which we see it. If the gravity is a force as the electromagnetism that originate simultaneously in the Sun and spread to the Land supposedly with the speed c should present the same aberration (2.1).
2. The main effect of the aberration of the light is to generate a cross pressure on the artificial satellites in orbit around the Land and on the present particles of dust in the solar atmosphere, reducing smoothly its orbital velocity and causing describing a spiral. This effect is Poynting-Robertson. Therefore, the Gravity and the light would produce a similar acceleration on the Land, in a three-dimensional space, in the same direction, although in contrary sense, since while the gravity attracts the light pushes to the Land. In addition, its magnitude would be different according to a constant to scale. Consequently, the physical behavior of the propagation of the light and the gravity would be the same one, since none characteristic prominent would be able to distinguish a field of the either (2.2).
(2.1) Aberration is equal to speed of orbit / speed of propagation. In this, case the speed of orbit of the Sun with respect to the Land.
(2.2) The author shares with Tom Van Flandern this thesis. The author enunciated this thesis as one of the bases of its theory on the existence of greater speeds that speed of light c. This thesis proceeds of the philosophical principle of the significant quantitative difference between different qualitatively phenomenons, of such way the speed of gravity cannot be the same speed of light. Sunday weekly "El Siglo". February 1970.
If the gravity will spread with the speed of light also would produce a similar effect like Poynting-Robertson. This revolting force of the gravity would be .0001 of radial force of the Sun. Its action continuous and tangent on the Land, in 1200 years its net effect, discounting the attraction of the gravitation, would transfer the orbit of the Land to a double distance.
Without place to doubts, the observations
show that said force not this acting, then the gravity with respect to the Land
lacks aberration. By this, in 1825,
Every body that is submitted to acceleration necessarily changes its vector moment any that be the cause, already well this be electromagnetic, gravity or another.
The vector of the moment is on the velocity of the bearer, whose direction of trip this along the radio that goes since a source to its objective, particularly between the Sun and the Land. Due to that necessarily the moment is resolved along the radial direction, is not possible that a part of the change of the moment can be applied in some another direction. Specifically, in the case of the light if the projectiles are photons and the force is the pressure of the radiation of the photons, the objective pushes in the direction in which arrive the photons.
The only physical reason that explains the different effective direction from the force of a retarded field with respect to another retarded field is their different velocities of propagation. Consequently, if the velocities of the gravity and the light were c their force on the Land they should act in parallel directions. However, the experiments forcefully show that the resultant accelerations of the body, under the action of the forces of the gravity and of the electromagnetism applies in different directions, which implies different velocities of propagation and essentially different nature of these phenomenas.
In addition due that in any instant, the acceleration of the Land, caused by the force of the gravity, aims at the true position of the Sun. In the meantime, the photons that arrive to the Land aim at the retarded position of the Sun pertaining to 8.3 minutes before. Then the speed of gravity must be many times the speed of light.
This is a new test about the difference between the velocities of the light and the gravity, besides, that the action of the gravity of the Sun to accelerate the Land in its orbit, is instant at least in front of this.
The difference between the speeds of light and gravity, also, is declared in the eclipses Sun - Moon - Land.
The time that would spend the light in presenting, to the observers in the Land, the tip of the cone of the intersection of the Moon on the Sun, known as optician eclipse maximum, would be barely of 1.3 second if the Moon fixed. However, due to its orbital speed of 1 km/s with regard to the Land, a sufficient interim adds to compare dependable, the speed of light and speed of gravity.
The result is that the optician eclipse most maximum spends at least 20 times more time in being communicated to the Land with relation to the gravity eclipse most maximum, which is when the positions of the Sun - Moon - Land are found aligned on the straight layout between the Sun and the Land.
Nevertheless, it should keep in mind that the visual registration of the optician eclipse most maximum is anticipated in 38 second to gravity eclipse most maximum, due to that in the optician eclipse see an image of the position retarded of the Sun. This image is before the position that has the Sun at moment of the alignment Sun - Moon - Land (2.3).
The prediction of the exact moment in which the most maximum gravity eclipse occurs presents an uncertainty of +/-2.
Since the transmission of the gravity between the Sun and the Land does not present aberration, the maximum time of propagation of the effect of the gravity eclipse most maximum is to 2 seconds. In turn, the optician eclipse maximum, transmitted with the speed c, spends 40 seconds in it see in the Land. Then the solar eclipses indicate that the speed of gravity is minimum 20 c.
So much for the Pulsars PSR1913+16 as for the PSR1534+12 the measurements carried out do not throw cross aberration during the reciprocal interaction of gravity (2.5), between the pair of stars (2.6), that compose each pulsar, which obliges each star, inside the pair, to orbit elliptically around the other, due to that their masses are similar.
When the data takes observed, for pulsar PSR1534+12, of the position, velocity and even of the acceleration of each star found that its interaction of gravity occurs in a great deal less than the time - light between them.
According to the anticipation observed of the effect of gravity in front of that of light is established like most minimum value of the speed of gravity, 2800 C.
Under the hypothesis according to which the gravity is a similar quantum phenomenon to the electromagnetic, the author established that in the equations, utilized to describe the tides and to do the predictions about his occurrence, do not include the retard due to the propagation of the gravity. Nevertheless, that some of the harmonic components of the wave of tide are of solar origin and, therefore, should travel through a significant distance.
Nevertheless, the results of the equations are coincident with the observations, and then should apply the implicit supposition in the equations of an infinite speed of propagation of the gravity between the Sun and the Land (2.7).
(2.3) This lag well knew by the bombers airplanes pilots. When they launch a bomb, they do behind of the objective, of such way that the bomb reach to the objective at the moment to touch land. Astronomically it is the effect of retard of traffic
(2.4) Two stars of neutron that orbit quick and reciprocally an around the other.
(2.5) This action is proper to the gravity dynamic field, created by each pair and to its variations.
(2.6) The pair of stars revolves around its common center of masses.
(2.7) See: Proposed for the execution of an experiment that serves to measure the speed of propagation of the gravitation. Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez. Santafe of Bogota, 1993.
Also, the author found that the calculation of the ephemeredes of the planets of the Solar system with the procedure DE200/LE200, standard that counts on world the greater acceptance, built in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1980, does not include the speed of propagation of gravity (2.8). Nevertheless that is the better tool built with which nowadays possible the greater precision achieves. The differences between the predictions and the values observed are less than a second arch.
This procedure includes the not lineal in
the superimposition of the gravity of the Sun, the planets, and the curvature
of the space produced by the mass of all the components of the system known as
metric for n-bodies post
The author proposed that the factor due to the propagation of the gravity would be able to be disguised in the constant of correction of phase that are used to cause to coincide the ephemeredes with the observations.
Said constant they have been set empirical and the astronomy of position lacks a satisfactory explanation about the same; is believed can originate of the difference of irradiation due to the variation of lighting of the planets and satellite according to its distance of the Sun.
In majority of the applications of the Astronomy of Position is sufficient the estimations done with the formulas of Kepler. Nevertheless, that this estimations are the ones that throw the major error in front of any another method. However, the deviations between the estimations of Kepler and the observations are smaller regarding the difference that results of not including the retard due to the speed of propagation of gravity if this speed is c.
The author made the conclusion that the speed of gravity surpasses enormously the speed of light. Indeed, under the supposed that the constant of correction of phase correspond totally to the factor of retard caused by the propagation of the gravity, then that residual values are inside all the process of adjustment that covers DE200/LE200 (2.10).
Tom Van Flandern carried out the estimation of the speed of propagation of the moment of origin of gravity, transmitted between the binary PSR1534+12 and the Land. Therefore, the author understands that Tom calculation the speed of the virtual gravitons.
Einstein considered the existence of gravity waves in analogy with the electromagnetic waves that are produced by the acceleration of an electric charge, although, in the case of the gravity its waves would be generated by the not uniform accelerations mutually induced between the bodies source and objective, that intervenes in a gravity interaction. This would be the case of the elliptic translation of the planets around the Sun. What cause these not uniform accelerations? Einstein said: "the existence of a cuadrupole mass system like a binary asymmetric Pulsars".
These not uniform accelerations is believed disturb the continuous 4-Lorentzian structure of a local region but very weakly, so much that according to the calculations of the general relativity not even the gravity waves produced by the asymmetric explosion of a supernova, are capable to accelerate in a level detectable to any another star. In this case, the supernova explodes caused the not uniform acceleration that suffers on its translation movement. That is to say, by a phenomenon strange to the gravity phenomenon.
The emission of these gravity waves would cause certain loss of the orbital angular moment for the binary Pulsars.
In effect, the orbit light decays for the P5R1913+16 of according to the prediction of Einstein about such gravity emission. This constitutes the indirect only test about its existence.
The speed of propagation of these
gravity waves, predicted by Einstein, would be c, which counts on the guarantee
of the scientists, who even calculate can be a little smaller. The doctor
Helmut Rechenberg, of the Institute Max Planck, in
In a next future, the projects LIGO, of
US, GEO, of
Nevertheless, according to the intercontinental experiment of radio-interferometer, made by Sergei Kopeikin, the speed of gravity waves would be of 1.06c, with an error between 10% - 20%. This experiment combined various radio telescopes on a vast distance in order to obtain an image as a group, carried out, September 8, 2002, by the team of astronomers directed by Sergei Kopeikin, of the university of Missouri, in Columbia, and Edward Fomalont, a radio astronomer of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO).
Kopeikin and Fomalont presented this data
during the first week of January of the 2003, in the annual meeting of the U.S.
Company of Astronomy that it carries out in
In the technique of radio-Interferometry, called VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry), it combines two or more radio telescopes to establish the direction of origin of a ray of radio from the arrival times difference of the rays of the electromagnetic wave to each one of the radio telescopes, components of the network established for a specific experiment. A radio wave emitted by a source travels in the space forming a spherical front that it expands around of the transmitter. The front of wave when it is expanded moves in radial direction far from the transmitter. The ray of the electromagnetic wave when they pass near the star, whose gravity potential produces its deflection, suffers a retard. For the case of the Sun or of a star is minimum the retard of the ray that passes more far away and most maximum that of the ray that passes more closed to such star. For the case of the planets is maximum the retard of the ray that passes more far away and most minimum that of the ray that passes more closed to such planets. Between these extremes, retard of a ray is inverse or directly proportional to its distance regarding the star that causes the deflection. All the rays, once occurs its deflection, continue parallels and reach the radio telescopes in different slightly distant instants. The fixation of the direction of a ray is especially exact in function to the distance between the radio telescopes, for which distant radio telescopes inside the intercontinental scale are used. This VLBI permits to measure the angular separation of two distant quasars with a smaller error to 0.1 milliseconds of arch. The VLBI utilized to detect the deflection of sources radio extragalactic rays in the gravity fields of the Sun and of Jupiter. In the case of the Sun, the deflection coincides with the value predicted by the general relativity inside a margin of error of 0.1%. However, it must very in account this highest precision refers to the value of the deflection. The VLBI is the present technology that permits to measure with the greater accuracy the value of the deflection that suffers the electromagnetic waves, hold down to gravity fields, according to the theory of the relativity of Einstein.
The experiment of Kopeikin-Fomalont
consisted of measuring the angular distance between quasars, stars that produce
radio waves and are of stellar appearance of great brightness and situated in
distant galaxies, during the visual alignment of September 8, 2002 between the
planet Jupiter and one of those quasars, called J0842+1835. This alignment
occurs once each decade. This experiment used the VLBA (Very Loosen Baseline
Array), of the group NRAO, that are compound by 10 radio telescopes of 25m,
located in the United States, that cover from Hawaii to the Virgin Islands. In addition, the radio telescope of 100m of the Institute for
Radio astronomy "Max Planck", located in Effelberg (
The hypothesis formulated by Kopeikin, who was the author of the design of the experiment, is that the gravity of Jupiter should cause a negligible displacement of the position in the sky of the quasar of reference. This phenomenon, it knew like the deflection of the electromagnetic waves by the gravity. Einstein explained the deflection as caused by the change of the rectilinear path of an electromagnetic ray when pass from the almost flat space-time, that exists when the density of the distributions of mass-energy tend zero, to the curved space-time created, for example, by a star of a great mass as that of the Sun. This deflection of the electromagnetic ray, by to follow closely the curvature of the space-time, presents altered the true position of the source, according to the direction where the ray it originated with respect to the star that causes the deflection.
The amplitude of that displacement should cause a light deformation in the form of the waves of radio that emanated of the quasar, and should depend on the speed of propagation of the gravity. The doctor Kopeikin says: "If the speed of gravity is infinite the quasar would appear like a circle in the sky to the step of Jupiter. But, if the speed of gravity is finite the quasar should appear elliptic". For, to perform this calculation Kopeikin rewrote the equations of the general relativity, concernments to the deflection, of such way that are formulated in the terms of mass and speed of the heavenly bodies and of the speed of gravity .
Of such way, Kopeikin in last instance generated a model of the gravity field that is not that of the general relativity. Indeed, this field not transmit a force neither, therefore, possesses velocity. The gravity field of Einstein is exactly the absence of force and in the terms of Tom corresponds to model of frozen static gravity. The measurements carried out in the past of the deflection on the part of the Sun refer to effect of the field of static gravity. That is to say, of the potential static gravity on an electromagnetic wave. A spherical body causes, in its proximity, the curvature of the space-time that the light ray inertial follows. This effect also produces a retard of the electromagnetic ray in front of its rectilinear path, which known as retard of Shapiro. This retard consists, in general, that as much as greater is the curvature of the space-time, of a specific region of the Universe, the rays that cross spend a greater time in appearing in the visual observer placed in the distance. That is to say, according to Shapiro the pulses of the electromagnetic currents of radiation suffer a retard directly proportional to the value of the curvature of the space-time of the region of the Universe that cross.
Kopeikin said that in the phenomenon
of deflection, it produced the retard of Shapiro but additionally a retard
exists proper to the finite value of the speed of gravity. Kopeikin uses the
same model of Einstein. That is to say the model of Schwarzschild of the field of spherical gravity symmetrical static. However, Kopeikin
assures that in the phenomenon of the deflection there are two effects, the
effect of the curvature of the space-time and the effect of the force that is
consequence of the propagation of the gravity with a finite speed. Kopeikin
notes that J. H. Taylor tested in 1994 the existence of this force; a year
Indeed, this system in the distance produces gravity waves, proper to the movement of translation of Jupiter around the barycentre of the solar system. In addition Kopeikin took Jupiter because is the most massive planet, approximately it represents a thousandth of the mass of the Sun, besides that lacks the intense effect of the expresses solar on the electromagnetic waves, when these travel near of the Sun.
Which is speed of gravity?. In agreement,
with the e-mail that in answer received the author of the doctor Kopeikin,
Which does gravity field change?. The model of gravity of Kopeikin introduces a force, produced by something that it transmits and in this sense, Kopeikin does transition to the quantum theory. Since, in this model through the gravity field it transmits moment between Jupiter and the radio waves ray. Then, Kopeikin reformulates the general relativity in quantum terms. This does none reach still with success.
The force that speaks Kopeikin is a species of preformation, inside the gravity field nearby, of the wave gravity that occurs far away. Therefore, this force that, does neither move to the heavenly bodies in its translations around other, is the force that in the field of gravity static is originated with the speed c. In addition, as preformation of the wave gravity should possess the same speed of this wave, that if is the gravity wave of Einstein. This was that Kopeikin proposed to measure, with the object he confirms the theory relativist of Einstein. That is to say, the preformation of the wave of gravity remits to Kopeikin to the wave of gravity of Einstein, that does not have anything that to do in front of the model of the heavenly mechanics of the general theory of the relativity. The experiment of Sergei Kopeikin eludes to confront the debate scientific that in the terms of the speed of gravity requires first theoretically to resolves if the gravity is according to the general relativity of Einstein or to the quantum gravity theory. Second, to design a crucial experiment for to establish the speed of transport of the force of interaction between the source and the objective gravity, that gravity static field transports. This type of experiment the author demands make since principles of 1990.
The speed of the gravity static field should be over c, according with the experiments with electromagnetic waves that produced superluminal speeds carried out especially since the decade of 1990, especially that of Walker. In 1969, author formulated this thesis, nowadays counts on the guarantee of Tom Van Flandern and other connoted scientists. The proposal to measure the speed of gravity wave in the terms of Einstein is to do not know the essential debate of the physical contemporary between if the gravity is a geometric phenomenon of the space-time or that of a fundamental force as it proposes the quantum theory. Therefore, in these terms the proposal of Kopeikin is an anachronism. However, how does it measure the speed of propagation of a gravity static field? Indeed this field is composed of virtual gravitons that spread and transport moment. In terms of Tom Van Flandern the static gravity field renews in every single moment.
Kopeikin said, "The gravitational waves are inherent in the zone of radiation (distant) of a system that is emitting the waves. Nevertheless, the waves of gravity do not spread freely inside the interior of the zone of not radiation (nearby) of the system. Nevertheless, the process of generation of the gravity waves produces effects retarded in the nearby zone that appears mainly as a force in the equations of movement of the relativity for bodies extended, inside a system of astronomical gravity. The existence of that force is the consequence of the finite speed of the propagation of gravity."
In its mathematician model, Kopeikin includes the Shapiro retards of the Sun, the Land and Jupiter. In addition, the transverse retard of the force that originates the finite speed of gravity. The experiment of Kopeikin partially abandons the explanation given by Einstein of the phenomenon of the deflection. This phenomenon would be the simple consequence of the curvature of the space-time. In addition, Kopeikin introduces the dependence of this phenomenon of a class of moment that the gravity static field would transmit, as result of the finite speed of the preformation of the gravity wave. That is to say, Kopeikin with its explanation of the deflection devises a mixed model of the phenomenon of the gravity that would be then geometric effect of the curvature of the space-time and quantum effect of the wave gravity. Therefore, this experiment does not only involve the scientific problem of validation of the instrument used. However, yet in the case that the theory of Kopeikin underlying counts on the acceptance of the world scientific community, he must face the critic of the scientific group no einstenian. In this group actually exists scientist that defends, inside the quantum theory of gravity, in the variant that explains the heavenly mechanic as a result of the action of the real force of gravity that is transported for the static gravity field, the thesis that the speed of gravity is greater that c (2.12). The theory of Kopeikin that seeks to pass by einsteniana, in reality gives a leap to the empty for saves it, in its find with the quantum theory that, nevertheless, tries to mock.
On the other side, the author finds that the gravitational model used by Kopeikin this based on a gravitational field spherical and symmetrical for Jupiter, exactly adjusted to the static field of the general relativity. Like occurs with that of the Sun the author believe is inadequate, since in reality the solar system is a system accelerated not uniform. That is to say, that field of Jupiter should produce a not uniform acceleration and a force like Tom Van Flandern has been explained and that possibly Taylor discovered. The author insists it understands the gravity phenomenon, inside of the theoretical framework of the static gravity field composed by virtual gravitons that spread and transport moment.
The result c for the speed of gravity, that defends Kopeikin, maybe be that in reality correspond to a frequency of the electromagnetic waves, radiated by the intense magnetic field of Jupiter in its orbital translation. From the movement of rotation of Jupiter, around its axis, has been detected electromagnetic radiation, in the radio waves band decimeter and centimeter. But this thesis requires, from the quantum theory, reelaboration it understands the phenomenon of the deflection and the interaction between the different existing fields and inside a same field between different notably different frequencies. That is to say, that it understands for deflection only the effect of the transmission of the moment by part of the different present fields in the region of the Universe with the which the electromagnetic radiation interacts when the cross. The author in its work "Velocities Super photonics" develops extensively the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the substantial phenomena or electromagnetic waves interaction on atomic structures. Also the author presents the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with itself that is the base of the phenomenon of rephase, that in the experiment of Princeton, US, carried out in the 2000, permitted for the electromagnetic wave to reach the speed of group of 310c. Still we know very little about the interaction between the different fields. (14 of January of 2003).
The scientific Paul Marmet and C Couture,
of the Department of Physics of the
Tom has been said that those gravity waves are really any electromagnetic radiation class (2.13) and are not prominent. In contrast, in the phenomenon of the gravity is fundamental the static gravity field and its variations since are the true cause of the not uniform accelerations between the source and objective bodies subjects to gravitation. It needs to design an experiment for to measure the propagation of the effect of the variation of the static gravity field on objective bodies, for example, with respect instant when a Supernova explodes. It is a little as we put out a static gravitation source and to establish the speed with which is produced the annulment of its effect of gravity on an objective body. That is to say, it reflects regarding the static gravity field in the terms of the model of the electrodynamics theory on the responsible, electric potential for the electrostatic field that exists in the spherical space of three dimensions, with center in a particle with charge, in rest or in rectilinear uniform movement. According to this model, initially the electric potential coincides with the mass of the particle with charge, for example, with the mass of an electron or of an atomic nucleus free. The electric potential go out in the same instant in which such particle is in the presence of another particle with charge. For example, an electron inside an atom of hydrogen, the electric potentials of the electron and of the proton, that serves of nucleus of the atom of hydrogen, extend more out of the masses of these particles to each one to include the other. This phenomenon to unfold of the electric potentials generates the respective electrostatic fields of the electron and proton, in the atom of hydrogen. The step of the electric potential to field electrostatic or the inverse step, when the atom of hydrogen is ionized, imply the velocity of propagation of the field electrostatic. Although really the electron moves inside of orbitals around of the nucleus of the atom of hydrogen and this movement of the electron is not rectilinear uniform, but the certain thing is that the electron while remain in a same orbital it does not radiate. In general, two bodies with charge, in the same instant in which they appear together, the phenomenon of interaction between its electrostatic fields occurs in the way before described (4 of December of 2003).
The gravity static field, according Tom, is full by the flow of gravitons (2.14) move to the chance and animated of an extraordinary speed, which is really the speed of gravity.
Tom conceives the real speed of gravity equal to the speed of propagation of the moment of gravity. Thus, Tom derives from formulas of the celestial mechanics the following equation (2.15):
P/p = [6π * v / p * c] [c / vg]
For the orbit of the Land:
p = 1 year, p is the orbital period
Most maximum P/p limit 2.4 * 10 -12/year (2.16)
v/c = 10-4
vg> = 109 * c, vg is the speed of gravity
He applies this equation at binary pulsar PSR1534+12 it so happens that the speed of gravity would be minimum 20 billion times c.
(2.8) In effect no procedure of ephemeredes includes such retard, to see Ask the Space Scientist.
(2.9) Those terms collect the adjustment due to relativity of Einstein (to see Will, 1974).
(2.10) See: The gravity. Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez. Santafe of Bogota. 1996.
(2.11) The main causes for the retard of the electromagnetic radiation that after passing closed to the Sun arrives at the Land since an external source are: 1 The retard of Shapiro. 2 The retard caused by the potential gravity field along the path of the ray of the electromagnetic wave. 3 The retard caused by the solar plasma. This last retard nothing has that to do with the two first retards that if belong to the theory of general relativity.
(2.12) On the other hand, before to
experiment of Kopeikin, the scientist William D. Walker, of the Royal Institute
of Technology, KTH-Visby, Department of Electrical Engineering, in Sweden,
carried out an experiment that indicates that the electromagnetic fields spread
superluminally in the field close to an electromagnetic source of waves
constituted by a electric dipole oscillating.
superluminal of the electromagnetic wave in the nearby field is so much of the
velocity of phase as of the speed of group. These results are consistent
with the theoretical model for the propagation of the electric field and the
magnetic field, in the nearby field of the dipole electric oscillating, that
Due to the similarity between the theoretical model of the dipole electric oscillating and that of an oscillating mass that radiates gravity waves, in the sense of Einstein, Walker foresees that these waves in the nearby field spread, also, with a speed superluminal.
In the model of Walker, of the
nearby field of the dipole electric oscillating, the mathematical reason that
the propagation of the magnetic and electric fields occur superluminal is that
inside a lower length to a length of the electromagnetic wave the wave itself
does not be able modeler by means of a sinusoid. That is to say, with the
function sine (wt) but with a sinusoid inside a function Dirac delta with the
function [r-d sine (wt)]. Indeed, as a length of wave measures between two
valleys or successive crests of a wave, during the preformation of the
electromagnetic wave these do not yet exist. By consequence, in the equations
of the velocities of phase and group the denominators are zero, when are
calculated for a smaller distance to that of a length of wave. This it produces
in the calculations the results of the velocities of phase and group
superluminal confirmed in the experiment of
If for the propagation of the wave of gravity, the contradictory results are analyzed formally obtained, by the einstenian relativist Kopeikin and the not einstenian relativist Walker, to the to seem the experiments throw the result that the theoretical model predicted according to the intention that its author had. That is to say, this remit us to that the fundamental thing in the measurement of the speed of gravity is the theory in which the same it base before that be it of the experiment that be carried out.
(2.13) Tom Van Flandern ratified,
this concept, to author by means of E-MAIL of the
If result that the speed of the field of gravity static is c then maybe be thru the thesis of Andrei Saharov about that the gravity is not a fundamental force but if a class of force of Casimir of long reach.
(2.14) Tom gravitons name entities.
(2.15) Danby, 1988, p. 327.
(2.16) It derived from G1/G
The speed of 20 billion times c has been established for the transmission by the static gravitational field of the quantum gravity force. Nevertheless, this is not testing about that transport of energy with a superluminal speed exists in the nature. It is required so that my thesis exposed in 1969 turns out true to discover that the gravitational waves propagate superluminally. But the gravity waves must also have a superluminal speed, applying that the speeds of static and dynamic gravitational fields is the same by analogy with the speeds of static and dynamic electromagnetic fields that have equal speed and ignoring, by consequence, the experimental measurement done by William D. Walker for the near field in the formation of the electromagnetic waves which is superluminal, although, either, to confirm this possible finding, would not be superluminal transport of energy, because it would happen before that it is finished forming the first wavelength. But the electromagnetic wave radiation would have two speeds. And, therefore, in electromagnetism the static field would have the same speed of the distant dynamic field, not that the near dynamic field. My thesis of 1969, mainly talks about the existence of a superluminal speed of the gravitational wave. The scientists since doctor Rechenberg has declared to it even hope that it is c, a little smaller, like the Einstein prognosis. Of such way, despite philosophical, methodological, conceptual and logical solidity of my theory that this thesis sustains ( 1] ) and of the experimental findings done by me ( 2] and 3] ) and Tom for the static gravitational field it is required most difficult and extraordinary like it is that the experimental measurement of the speed of propagation of the gravitational wave is greater than c, very greater than c (6 of July, 2004 ).
The true quantum gravity theory, that is, the one that explains the static gravitational field with base in the virtual graviton, anticipates the same as the relativity of Einstein, the existence of the waves of gravity. In the quantum theory, every particle or body emits virtual gravitons. Which are the conditions under the particles or bodies, radiate real gravitons? We know the thesis of the general relativity about bodies that suffer not uniform accelerations radiated real gravitons. In addition, we know its possible indirect discovery by the decay of the orbital angular moment of the binary Pulsars, although Tom Van Flandern rejects it. In agreement, with the general relativity the speed of the waves of gravity is c. However, according to the thesis, based on the quantum gravity, the phenomenon of static gravity field spreads with a speed far away above c. Indeed the speed of the gravity wave, also, would possess a greater speed that c and equal to the speed of propagation of static gravity field.
Nevertheless, is possible that the thesis turn out to be certain of Walker about that the speed is superluminal of the near electromagnetism field and of the near gravity field and that the electromagnetic and gravity waves spread to the speed c. Alternatively, experimentally the speed of the gravity wave may to result greater or more less than c. In the cases in which the speed of the gravity wave result equal to c, or the electric and gravity nearby fields spread with the same speed superluminal would violate the principle of distinction quantitative of a physical phenomenon of a class regarding another of different class, that the author and Tom Van Flandern defend. This principle not only is valid in the nature but also is Universal, since the qualitative differentiation of the being situates exactly in being differentiates according to its measures. (8 of December of 2003).
In the nature the energy of a system can be transmitted to other bodies of two forms: radiating it by means of waves or a force of interaction, in both cases moment transference takes place. But only phenomenon that transports detectable energy directly is phenomenon undulatory, since energy that also transports the forces of interaction of the static fields, is transport of energy undetectable directly, even though the moment transference on the part of the interaction forces is pronounced by the impact of energy in each point of the space on particles that arrive at them and, consequently, can be measured the moment transmitted like the potential energy of the point. The other natural phenomenons have energy but they do not transport it.
Therefore, the existence of true superluminales speeds, that are the relatives to superluminal transport of energy, will be only established if waves with superluminales speeds are discovered. In relation to gravitational waves is due to clarify that the conception of General Relativity is not really the true theory of quantum gravity waves, although General Relativity, in this subject, passes by quantum gravity theory. The necessary differentiation between both theories, on the gravitational waves, is not crucial with relation, to the measurement of the speed of the gravitational waves that is tried to make in the projects LISA, LIGO, VIRGO, GEO and TAMA.
General Relativity predicts the existence of radiation of gravitational waves that in the lowest order is proportional to cuadrupole moment of the distribution of the mass-energy of a local region. This radiation is originated in the mechanical lost energy, that is to say, kinetic and/or potential, during the produced no uniform accelerations in the matter within the region.
The lost energy reappears in the induced undulations of the curvature of the space-time. Due to the continuous character of the space, the energy is transported, from the sources, through the propagation of the disturbances of the space-time, to the asymptotical regions in relation to the region where the waves take place. The mechanical energy of the sources, when it is about periodic processes, secular way diminishes in equal magnitude to the energy and, therefore, gravitational waves cannot occur exactly periodic.
The fundamental hypothesis of the theory of General Relativity is that neither during the free movement of particles within the gravitational field, nor either during the gravitational radiation the mass in rest of the particle changes, of this assumption it eliminates the possibility that the particle same, with own energy, contributed for the gravitational work or the gravitational radiation.
The gravitational waves during their transport in great distances remain almost without alteration, which has a great value in the cosmology, due to the information which they can provide, but in very great distances the wave fronts undergo deformations and they are refracted, also they are possible to be dispersed and they can vary of wavelength, with which the red landslide to the gravitational one takes place; simultaneously the gravitational wave deforms still more the geometry of the space-time, in such a way that the wave when interacting with the gravitational field, produces more gravity reason why they are nonlinear waves.
The gravitational waves, like the electromagnetic waves, are cross-sectional thus their direction of propagation is perpendicular to the planes in which the disturbance takes place. And just as the electromagnetic waves they are polarized in agreement with both states in which the vibration of the wave can happen and whose effects are cross-sectional with respect to the direction of the propagation of the wave. In state + the vibration extends and compresses the wave in the orthogonal directions. And in state x the vibration does the same with the wave but in the rotated directions 45 degrees with respect to the directions of state +.
The gravitational waves,
All radiation can be described by means of quantum, that is to say, be quantized, and in the case of the gravity the quantum would be the graviton in analogy with the photon. But, the problem that arises is that the interactions of spin two are not renormalized, mathematical procedure by means of which the infinite solutions are eliminated, due to several reasons. A reason essential is what does it mean to quantize geometry? Or the curvature of space-time?. Really weak fluctuations in the metric tensor of the space-time have been quantized and result is the graviton of spin two.
The gravitational waves are fundamentally different from the waves of the electromagnetic field that are produced in the scale of the atom that is in the microscopic scale. The gravity waves take place in the macrocosms, by asymmetric accelerations of very massive bodies as the stars; in such a way that the transmission, although very weak energy, is not absolutely despicable and consequently it is possible to be measured. But, in general all asymmetric variation of a gravitational field will produce a gravitational wave, although in most of the cases it will be undetectable.
The gravitational energy that it transmits through waves of the field of gravitation, or what is the same by means of waves of the continuous space-time. The oscillations that are of the space-time cause, for example, in the atoms that the electrons and nucleus oscillate due to the oscillation of the structure of the space-time. This oscillation can reach to break the molecular structures, and to make pieces the bodies building with them. These waves have certain similarity with the waves in the water. But, these waves when they interact not superpose that is are not added, reason why they are not linear either, but that hits which it changes the form of his fronts of wave, they disperse, although they can happen to traverse of others, to the way of the waves that propagate and interact in cords. Spherical waves not exist, always they are ellipsoids, and soon they require taking place of certain asymmetry. As they are not produced by the fundamental components of the macro bodies, but by these totally taken, they only provide information from global type on the sources. They have a very great wavelength, very low frequency and are very weak because transporting very little energy.
In analogy with the radiation of electromagnetic energy produced by oscillations it advanced back of electrons, General Relativity predicts that a star oscillating ahead back must produce gravitational waves that can be detected. In effect, this happens in binary pulsars. If the stars are closely together the stars of the binary system they push each one the other communicating an orbital oscillating movement to it. Thus in principle is required of a dipole similar to the way of the production of the electromagnetic waves, where it is required of two electrical or magnetic poles of equal magnitude, sign or opposite polarities together within a smallest space. For Einstein, in principle, it is required to produce gravitational waves of a system of two masses that can have different magnitudes. Nevertheless, this analogy between electromagnetic waves and gravitational waves are not so perfect. Whereas in electromagnetism the oscillation is symmetrical and the electromagnetic waves are by consequence spherical waves, in the gravity the waves as those of the sea they are not it reason why it is required to produce them of asymmetric sources. For the case of binary pulsars is requiring to generate oscillations irregular of the two masses, that take part. For that reason is required that the producing system of gravitational waves at least constitutes really a system of double dipole, or cuadrupole. This is the case for binary pulsar with forms ellipsoids and/or elliptical orbits. In these pulsars with the variation of the time take place within the dipole variations of the common center of masses of the system, this produces cuadrupole, or double dipole that reunites the relation of the energy of four nonsymmetrical angular moments of two masses. In General Relativity, an isolated system of a symmetrical dipole of masses and orbits do not radiate because the center of masses is uniform in the time, and because the inertial mass that determines the moment of the dipole is the same mass that generates the waves gravitational. In binary pulsar transmits gravitational waves caused the decay of the period of its orbits. This is due to the first law of the thermodynamics that it establishes that neither the mass nor the energy are created nor destroyed but if they are possible to be transformed. Therefore, the lost energy with the decay of the period of the orbits is transmitted like the energy that transports the gravitational waves. This it is the case of binary pulsar, discovered in 1974, of two stars of neutron, approximately 1.4 times the mass of the Sun and with an orbital period of 7.75 hours, which are decreasing in near 59 milliseconds. In general the gravitational waves with energy that can be measured produce in the gigantic asymmetric physical processes of minimum four poles, as the asymmetric outbreaks of supernovas, gravitational asymmetric collapses, asymmetric explosions in the nuclei of the Galaxies, or in the asymmetric sprouting of a stellar system or at the moment of the Big Bang, in that case called fundamental gravitational waves.
Within the theoretical framework from the unification of the four fundamental forces of the nature, mainly from the theories of cords, they have arisen or acquired the present time other geometric theories on the gravity, alternatives to General Relativity, that are considered viable theories, as soon as fulfill the criteria of the metric formulism of the parameterized post Newtonian for n-bodies, PPN.
These theories make predictions about the Solar System that they are indistinguishable of those of General Relativity. Within the theories admitted, although originating of 1960-70, they are those that raise the variation of the gravitational mass in rest. One is to scalar tensor of Brans-Dicke and another one is the bi-metric of Rosen. These theories for to calculate the gravitational radiation use the method of approach of the weak gravitational field. This field is next to a flat space-time, that is, cuasi Euclidean. This is with the purpose of working with a linear gravitational model. But, unlike General Relativity these theories talk that although with time the moment of the inertial mass of a dipole remains constant, also is possible it produces gravitational radiation by variation of the moment of the mass gravitational, although very tenuous, but that violates the established good principle of equivalence between inertial mass and gravitational mass of General Relativity. This radiation would be transported by real dilaton that unlike the graviton would have spin zero, by being like a point and to look like the same one from all direction.
The theory of dilaton made end of 1990 has acquired certain acceptance in the scientific community, due to the observation in supernovas of which the Universe expands with an increasing rat, unlike which hoped that this rat was decreasing. This effect suggests that can exist a repulsive gravity for which dilaton would be responsible.
The predicted gravitational radiation with base in the dipole of the bi-metric theory of Rosen would be originated in the variation of the mass-energy, that is depending of the local field; the radiation of the dipole becomes a function from the internal structure of the bodies of the system, because the mass that generates the gravitational waves depends of the bond of the internal gravitational energy, that can be different from each body and to vary with its particular nature, although the radiation would be zero for circular orbit. In this case the radiation of cuadrupole only would be possible. The energy of the bond, for example, for a particle alpha represents the energy of the mass of approximately 28 MeV that is lost with respect to the sum of the mass of their components in free state. This energy of the bond represents in the particle alpha the energy of the nuclear strong force that is needed to maintain two protons and two neutrons together within alpha. The energy of the gravitational bond that would be required to maintain all the parts of a body together would be very many weaker than the one of the nuclear force strong. For the case of the Earth this energy of the gravitational bond would reduce the mass of the Earth by an almost infinitesimal factor of only near 4,6 parts in 1010. Therefore, the principle of equivalence between the masses inertial and gravitational would be a restricted and no general principle. Thus the energy of the gravitational bond would generate its own gravity. But, in agreement with Will and Eardley this theory fails completely, since the dipole when it radiates would have to increase the energy of the system, because the radiation would be of negative energy; Rosen responded that it is possible to assume a time-symmetrical solution, in exchange for the slowed down solution that was used by Will and Eardley, with the consequence that can have radiation of any order without lost or gain of energy. Nevertheless, this radiation that would transport negative energy would be the cause of the repulsive gravity. However, that in all the observed cases, in that it can have gravitational radiation, exists decay of the period of orbits, it is not excluded that the radiation transported by dilaton exists, since the radiation responsible for this decay would be transported by the graviton and the radiation of dilaton is almost infinitesimal.
In the theory of Brans-Dicke "constant" G in fact is not constant, since this determining by the totality of the matter in the Universe, the one that throughout the space-time would generate a field extra, additional to the curvature of the space-time. This field would influence the gravity of point to point and, therefore, it would be a scalar field of G. Therefore, the force of the interaction of an amount of mass-energy would depend on the local value of the scalar field of G, because G would lack universality and G expresses the capacity of the mass-energy to interact gravitationally. The reach of the effect of the dipole depends on the difference of the bond of gravitational energy, by unit of mass for both bodies and thus it depends also on the internal structure of these. When the orbits are circular the variation in the time of the scalar field of G, each one of the bodies due to the movement of the other, is zero and the contribution of the dipole to the radiation is also zero, reason why the radiation only has cuadrupole order. The prediction of the gravitational radiation of the dipole of the theory of Brans-Dicke has passed the test made with binary pulsar PSR 1913+16 whose stars have elliptical orbits.
The theories of Brans-Dicke and Rosen lead to the existence of a fifth force that would be the gravitational cause of that the components of the macro objects remain together. This force of the gravitational bond would have like transmitter the dilaton. Also, others, to favor of a fifth force, have include a spin boson one who can attract or repel unlike the bosons of spin two which they only can attract. This boson would be the carrier of a repulsive gravity of short reach.
Of the four existing fundamental forces the gravity is, according to General Relativity, of nature essentially different in relation to the nature from the other three forces that are interaction forces.
In Relativity the gravity is a pseudo force, because it is the geometric effect of the curved space-time in the movement of the free bodies of real forces, that follow geodesics. In the Quantum Mechanics, however the other forces are real, as soon as are the physical causes in the electromagnetic force that the electrical charges or the magnetic poles of equal sign are rejected or of opposite sign they are attracted; in the weak force that the atomic nuclei is disintegrated and in the strong force that quarks, remains united, in the structures of proton and neutron and these in the structure of the atomic nucleus.
In the quantum scale any interaction between a particle and its surroundings is expressed like a real force that acts on the particle. In general, all interaction between a particle system and its surroundings is expressed like a real force that acts on the particle system. And the interactions between particles of a system are expressed by means of internal real forces of the system. The Quantum Mechanics, part of the Standard Model, describes the real forces like virtual particle effect of the moment is transmitting between the real particles that interact through these forces.
In relation to an inertial observer, the particles are in rest when its speed, measured by this observer, is zero. And a particle is in balance with respect to an inertial observer when its acceleration is zero. Of where a particle is in balance when the resulting force of all the operating forces is zero. Soon a particle can be in rest in relation to an inertial observer, but not be in balance. Also, a particle can be in balance and not be in rest with respect to an inertial observer.
A particle located in a point of the space, named real particle source, occupies the space with virtual particles that are manifested by interaction forces, represented in each point by means of a vector, between all point of the space of its influence and the point where the real particle is located. Therefore, the force field is created by a process of disintegration of the mass of particles, when interacting with environment, and is the zone of the space where they are present forces of interactive origin.
As the force is a vectorial magnitude, also, it is the field which has: module, direction and sense. All the vectors have their origin in the real particle source and its end in each point of the space of their influence. Therefore, the virtual particles exist in each point of the three-dimensional space and at every moment in the time within the variety space-time of their influence, that is that where its presence can be measured although not in the individual terms of the own measures of each virtual particle if by the force effect that altogether the virtual particles cause in each point, reason why give rise to a continuous magnitude of vectorial discreet values or vectorial field of force, that due to its dispersion in the space decays in agreement with the inverse one of the square of the distance and with the exhaustion of the mass of the source, also, it decays with time although with a infinitesimal rate.
The presence of virtual particles is pronounced by the forces that they induce to real particles of test to move within lines of force, which they are the tangent curves to the direction of the field of force in each one of his points and pass through the center of the particle source of them. The force field is of short reach for the weak and strong forces and infinite, at least theoretically, for the electromagnetic force.
In order to characterize the field, from the energetic perspective, also, to each point of the space is assigned a value called scalar potential that is function of the coordinates of the point. The potential of a point represents the work necessary to take to a real particle of test from the potential point zero to each point of the field created by a particle source. Consequently, the work is the measurement of the energy that a particle source transmits to a test particle, by means of a force of interaction, caused by the impacts of the virtual particles that emanate of the source, and it produces a displacement to the test particle. And the static potential in a point is the potential energy that would have a particle of test located in that point. For that reason the static potential point is different of the potential energy.
As each point of the space has a potential, it generates the scalar field of potentials, or briefly potential, that are perpendicular to the lines of force of the force field, that is known simply by field. An important measurement of the field of potentials is the difference of potential between two points that is equal to the work necessary to transfer the particle of test from a point to other. If a particle is transferred from a point with a potential to another point of different value, and the forces of force field are overcome, it must make a work that is contributed to the field of potentials and is made by outer forces to the field force. On the contrary, if due to the tendency to the movement, that the lines of force field, push to a test particle, that it causes that the particle is transferred of a point with a value of potential to another point of different value, the work is made by force field and by such reason tension of the field is also denominated. For closed trajectories, which they are those that begin and end the same point, the work made by external forces, that energy consumes, is annulled with the work of the forces of the field, which they restitute the energy that was spent and the made total work on the test particle, after describing a closed trajectory, is zero. Soon, the mechanical work depends single on the end points of the lines that the particles cross. This type of forces that restitute the energy used in dominating them is the conservative forces. All conservative force entails potential energy. And all made work produces a variation in the potential energy. The work causes the increase, if it has gone to a greater potential, or the diminution, if it goes to a smaller potential, of the potential energy of the test particle, and is well-known like potential energy of the static field or energy of position. If between two points of the field of potentials the necessary work is zero, it has them points belong to a same equipotential surface, that are the surfaces equiescalares, that is to say, the geometric places of the points of the field of potentials that have potentials of equal value. These are theoretically infinite surfaces that, as a successive, concentric envelopes in the particle source of the field force that is being considered.
The field forces are static because they are compound of virtual particles. These particles are the virtual photons of the electromagnetic force, the virtual bosons: W+ W- and Z0 of the weak force and the virtual gluons of the strong force. These particles are virtual because their effects can never be detected, on account that its period of decay agrees with the lapse of uncertainty that exists in the microscopic world, although if they are possible to be measured. This way, the forces transport energy but as this transport of energy is undetectable the forces seem the same at all moment reason why they constitute the static fields of force, or rather pseudo static field of force, by to lack of impulse that is the change at the moment, in function to the time, reason why the action the force on a particle is not detected like function of the time, but like function of the position, which leads to the concepts of work and energy that are necessary to introduce to solve the equation of the movement of a particle within a force field, since the force is based on position and not of the time. However, the rapidity of the conducted work can be measured, that knows like power or work conducted by unit time.
Next to the static fields of force the dynamic fields made up of real particles exist that if they are possible to be detected and to be measured in each three-dimensional point of the space and at every time. That is to say, the period of decay of real particles by to exceed the lapse of uncertainty allows that they are possible to be detected. These real particles are pairs of the virtual particles and are in the electromagnetic field the real photon; in the weak field the real bosons W+, W- and Z0 and in the strong field the real gluons. The dynamic fields are originated by variations of energy of the static fields. The dynamic fields transport this energy, well-known like radiation, in the waveform, composed by myriads of real particles. These waves can be detected and be measured at every moment because their component particles are real. And the state of movement of the dynamic fields is directly observable. These fields have impulse, moment and its existence is established in function to the time.
Both pillars of the modern physics: General Relativity, with their conception of pseudo force of the gravity, and the Quantum Mechanics, with their conception of the other fundamental forces like real, is incongruous and incompatible theories. Bridge that unfruitful has treated to tend between both is the gravity quantum, which in spite of the quantization in real gravitons of the gravitational radiation, predicted by General Relativity, it has not managed to surpass the inconsistencies that arise in high energies, in his integration with the Quantum Mechanics. The same happens with the quantum theory of the gravity, obtained of the Quantum Mechanics, that in low energies is reduced to General Relativity but it fails in high energies. Therefore, not yet a quantum theory of the integral gravity exists, in spite of the great attacks delivered in near 100 years. What nowadays it is had they are the theories of the gravodynamic quantum (QGD) that studies the force of the gravity in the quantum scale, and it is applied to elementary particles and their interactions and General Relativity for the force of the gravity in the scale of the macrocosms.
The QGD predicts virtual gravitons to transport the gravitational force of mass to mass. And it includes the gravitational theories of the quantum field and of the cords. In both theories, by means of diagrams of Feynman the several elastic and inelastic processes of interaction between two elementary particles can be represented that interchange virtual gravitons. These processes are given like a sum of the whole history of particles.
In the present, the use of General Relativity as the theory of the gravity constitutes the gordian knot of the physical theory that it prevents can make the unification of the four fundamental forces of the nature. And due to the great international authority of the relativist physicists, also, it has prevented that is progressed in the construction of a true quantum theory of the gravity, despite the attempt made by Saharov, Staniukovich, Vasiliev and the other Soviet physicists that tried it, during the decade of 1960. Nevertheless, it is frequent to find, since Stephen Hawking does, the explanation of the force of the gravity between bodies, like the effect of his interaction that transports the hypothetical virtual graviton of spin two. Of another side, in the 2001, Valery Nesvizhevsky of the Institute Laue-Langevin found for the first time effects quantum of the neutron gravity that moved through jumps, from a height to another one, in a field of gravitation, as it is predicted by the quantum theory or gravodynamic. And in the 2006 NASA has planned the launching and its terrestrial orbit collocation of Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), whose intention is to measure the interaction between the hypothetical virtual graviton and the gamma rays during its trip in the space. The photons of the gamma rays that are those of the highest energy of the electromagnetic spectrum must have a speed in the space below c that is the speed of photons of low energy. This test of the NASA will prove my thesis of 1969 about which the most inertial particles are slower.
The recent efforts of Tom Van Flandern when demonstrating the necessity to construct a quantum model of the gravity, that truly explains this phenomenon, since General Relativity definitively does not do it, because it violates the universal principle of cause-effect, has sent on the part of this author the discussion to the theory of George-Louis Le Sage, exposed in 1784 on "Gravity is to Push". But, neither in the terms of the theory of General Relativity, nor of the alternative metric theories, nor of the gravodynamic theories as the theory of Supergravity, with base in the quantum field, and in the theories of All the Things, with base in the supercords, an integral and universal quantum theory of the gravity exists at the moment. Therefore, a true quantum theory does not exist either about the gravitational wave, is to say of the real graviton.
This way, from the perspective of the quantum mechanics we will reunite some concepts, we will make some considerations and we will raise some ideas about the gravitational waves.
Let us suppose that the gravity is also like the other three fundamental forces, an interaction force and consequently the gravity is a real force and not a pseudo force.
"Two particles are attracted gravitationally because continuously they interchange virtual gravitons". Therefore, the gravitational interaction between particles happens through the infinitesimal virtual graviton that all existing particle, from its mass-energy, produces and with which it tends to occupy to the infinite all the points of the three-dimensional space at all moment of the time, giving rise to the static field of gravitational vectorial force, that is therefore an energy emission, that transports the virtual graviton, emitted by all the existing particles that universally act like monopoles of virtual gravitons.
The gravitational field it represents in each point of the space by means of a vector of force, directed from these points towards the point that occupies each particle source, this cause that the origin of the force vector is in the particle source and its end in each point of the field, because the field is central and its force depends only on the distance, thus the field has spherical symmetry. A force applied on a particle in movement is a central force, when this force is directed constantly towards a fixed point that occupies the particle source. These vectors of force induce to that the particles placed in the field tend to be transferred, until being united with the particle source that creates the field.
The gravitational interaction is universal since all real or virtual particles create a field of gravitational force and all the particles undergo the gravitational field of force that the other particles produce. The gravitational force is always attractive. And it is the weakest of four fundamental forces. It has reach theoretically infinite although over certain finite distances it becomes entirely despicable. And form no exists for its reach can be interrupted, that is to say, to screen the gravitational field. Its speed is superluminal, understood this speed like the speed for to fill space of virtual gravitons from a particle source, each graviton of brief individual existence, that is renewed to the infinite moment to moment.
Associated to the vectorial field of force exist the scalar field of potentials that result of the work necessary theoretically to pass particles of test from infinite, potential zero, to each one of the points of the field created by a particle source, when this one stays fixes. This work represents the gravitational potential energy in each point, because the work would be made by a conservative force as gravitational force is and because the potential energy diminishes from the initial value zero then always final value for a potential will be negative.
When two particles come near, the potential energy diminishes and the work makes the gravitational force at the cost of the potential energy. When two particles separate is necessary to apply an outer force, since work is made it increases the energy potential, which theoretically will take their maximum value in the infinite. In fact potential zero exists in the distance where the gravitational force of the particle source becomes no important. This way, to each relative position of two particles a potential energy corresponds.
Due all particle is source of a static field of gravitational force, all the particles tend to that the others are joined with them, with which is created therefore a universal tendency of convergence, of particles in particle systems, with central points who are common, in a Universe in expansion possibly accelerated. The number of systems tends to infinite, but, within a local region exist a finite set of particle systems, organized in agreement with the distribution of mass-energy of the region. Therefore, a precise particle set, associated to a system, creates a gravitational flow of all of them in each point of the space. The potential energy formed by more than two particles, from a particle system multiple, is obtained adding the energies corresponding to the binary systems that can be formed with given particles take two to two. This is the gravitational intensity field of potentials and is equal to the sum of all the potentials that concur in a point, and the same happens with the gravitational field of forces that is the total force, that is, the vectorial sum of all the gravitational forces that concur in a point which under them would be put the unit of mass of a particle placed in this point.
The vectors intensity field of potentials and also the vectors of the lines of force are perpendicular to the equipotential surfaces. In the uniform fields the lines of force are parallel and equidistant to each other, and in them, the intensity of field has the same value in all its points. The lines of force are not cut because, in each point, the field only can have a direction. The lines of force are tangent to the vectors intensity of field of potentials, defined in each one of the points. And the direction and the sense of the line of force are the direction and the sense in that the particles of test in free movement would move on the force field, whenever the two particles that interact are isolated of the rest of existing in the Universe or at least cuasi isolated, because the influence of the others is despicable on the local region of two these particles.
Therefore, really a particle of test in free movement follows the direction and the sense of the lines of intensity field of force that are then the trajectories described by test particles. And the energy spent in the free movement of particles is the energy of the differential of gravitational potential between the point that passes through the center of the particle source of the field of force, considered in rest, and the point that the particle of test considered in rest occupies. In fact, because the particle source is under the action of the field of force of the test particle, the particle source also in free movement moves in movement uniforms accelerated in the direction and sense of the line of force that passes through the center of both particles source and test, for Uniform fields. Nevertheless, due to the difference of mass-energy between the particle systems measured with center in the particle source and the particle of test, the free movement of the particle source in the field of force of the test particle can be despicable as it happens to the particle system of the Sun in our planetary system.
In agreement with the
The laws of Newton does not include the time and the field gravitational considers static field, responsible for the celestial mechanics, lead necessarily, from the perspective of the gravodynamic to assign to the virtual graviton a superluminal speed.
These fundamental laws
Gravitational force = -(G(m1m2)/r212 )*r12
Potential energy = -(G(m1m2)/r12 )
Gravitational potential = -(G(m1)/r)
Flow of the vector field through a closed surface, with spherical or cylindrical symmetry, inside which exists a total mass m = -4Gm
Where m1 and m2 are the masses, r12 is the distance among them, ř12 is the unitary vector directed from particle 1 to particle 2, r is the distance from particle 1 to a point of the field and G is the constant of the universal gravitation.
Of the previous considerations, for the author:
1. The vectorial field
of gravitational force and the scalar field of potentials have a structure in
function to the space in the point x1, x2, x3
and in function to the time t, that depends on the value of the previous points
at previous moments, due to the propagation of "the static" field
with a finite, although superluminal speed and to the brief time of decay of
the virtual graviton. Thus, the propagation of "the static" field
that in cosmic scale can extend billions of kilometers towards the infinite, is
necessarily through a wave of gravitational "static" field,
similarly, as the gravitational dynamic field propagates. But, with the
difference that "static" wave of the gravitational field is
undetectable, because the virtual gravitons of the wave of
transmission of the gravitational force, are undetectable to decay within the
lapse of uncertainty. Therefore it is that the gravitational "static"
field in all the forms to measure it is described only based on the space and
for that reason is saw like "static" in contradiction with its
true dynamic nature. The static character of the gravitational field is the
apparent immediate manifest form of dynamic field of virtual graviton to the
conscience. For that reason in the formalism of
2. A particle in free movement in a gravitational field of force is the particle on which the net force on her is solely the force of gravitational field that acts on a line of intensity field of force, and does that the particle of test in free movement moves with accelerated uniform movement on geodesy in the variety spacetime agrees with the line of force. This is the physical cause of which the geodesic lines are certain in their direction and sense by the direction and sense of the lines of intensity field of force and is the cause of which the free particles move in the geodesic lines and not in any direction and free sense, done that the theory of General Relativity cannot explain and that the electrodynamics theory express in the principle of Fermat. The flow through a surface located inside a gravitational field is the vector surface that tends to be curved. This is thus because the movement of particles in the fields is determined by the action of the intensity field of force; only in the case that the vector of intensity field is agrees with the vector of lines of force field the geodesic lines will be straights, and the surface a plane, in the other cases in which intensity the field is from the vectorial composition of concurrent lines of force the geodesy is curvilinear and curvilinear surface. This causes that the variety spacetime it is curve.
3. Because the carrying particle of the gravitational force is the virtual graviton in agreement with the statistic of Bose-Einstein takes place the superposition of this particle, originating of the different individual fields that in three-dimensional they concur in a same point of the variety spacetime and, therefore, the gravitational static field obeys as much at the principle of superposition of the field of force like of the field of potentials. Thus, the force that acts on a mass, that comprises of a set of masses, of the distribution of mass-energy of a local region, is the vectorial sum of the forces that each one of the remaining masses exerts, separately on her. This principle of superposition, also, is valid for the vectors intensity of field, so that the value of the intensity field in a point is the vector resulting intensity of the representative vectors intensity of the fields that act on this point. But, this principle is not fulfilled in some quantum phenomena, although yes it is valid for the gravitational field and the electrostatic field.
With the objective to induce the processes in which undulatory gravitational energy from the gravodynamic can be radiated it adopts the model of the main electrodynamics like referring. In agreement with this one, a charge in rest occupies the space with virtual photons, within of the electrostatic potential scalar. A charge when constant speed moves with, as much in direction as in magnitude, that is, when generates a current stationary, occupies the space with virtual photons, within of the electrostatic potential vector. A charge in accelerated movement fulls the space with radiation energy-moment, that is to say, with real photons. The electromagnetic radiation takes place in the cases in that electrical charges undergo accelerations like the following ones:
1. In the abrupt deceleration that happens in the particle collision of high energy, that happens regularly when the cosmic rays enter and hit against the nucleus of the atoms that compose the atmosphere of the Earth. The kinetic energy that is lost in a strong particle deceleration of high energy produces one or more neutral pions of the family of the mesons. The created pions are unstable and they are disintegrated almost instantaneously, in a pair of gamma rays, with high values of energy, greater that 72 MeV. This, also, happens in the annihilation process, when hitting a particle and its corresponding antiparticle, like an electron and a positron, when disappearing these, as much the energy of their mass like the kinetic energy, produce the neutral pion that is disintegrated in the emission of a pair of gamma rays.
2. In the accelerations
undergone by charge particles of cosmic rays when interacting with the existing
magnetic fields to its passage through the atmosphere when they do not undergo collisions.
Thus the electron radiates frequently gamma rays. When the electron is
decelerated in the electrostatic field around a nucleus, the radiation is
"bresstrahlung"; if the deceleration takes place in a static magnetic
field the radiation is the ciclotronic and when the deceleration occurs in
the electromagnetic field of a photon it produces the dispersion
3. In the radioactive decomposition or the electromagnetic desexcitation of the nucleus takes place radiation gamma ray or also in the nucleus processes syntheses that occur in supernovas.
4. In the processes of passage between external to internal orbits the electrons produce the electromagnetic radiation in the frequencies that go between x-rays and the radio waves.
5. In the vibrations of molecules take place electromagnetic radiation in the infrared frequencies.
Like consequences, the electromagnetic radiation takes place by: monopoles in the processes of disintegration of nucleus from particles of high energy or nuclear synthesis; dipoles in the passage of electrons between orbits and multipoles in the molecular vibration. Of these ways, the electromagnetic radiation is the result of the processes of interaction forces in which to charges or magnetos participate and in that conversion of kinetic energy, potential energy static electro-magneto; energy of the nuclear packing; energy of the mass destruction or vibracional energy takes place in electromagnetic energy. That is to say, when from charges or magnetos detectable photons are emitted, that is, real photons that the author observes are the result of virtual photon emission enriched by great happened contributions of energy during their emission. Therefore, the physical key of the transition of virtual particles to real would consist of the mechanisms of provision of energy that would extend the time of decay of virtual particles over the threshold in which they are detectable.
Resemblance to the radiations considered in the electrodynamic field the gravitational waves would be a radiation of a monopole, since all particle independently of the others generate a "static" gravitational field and consequently it can also generate radiation gravitational. The gravitational wave would take place by any variation of static gravitational field caused by agents who provide energy to it in immense amount, beyond the threshold in which these waves remain without to be detected, without necessarily it due to the period of decay of the graviton that although surpasses the lapse of uncertainty the wave can continues undetectable due to its extreme weakness. The suitable scale so that such contributions of energy happen is the cosmic scale. A system of a binary star in elliptical orbits and nonspherical volumes contribute energy in such level that in agreement with the calculations of General Relativity is detectable by the technology available at the present time. The gravodynamic also leads to the prediction done by Einstein on the gravitational waves in agreement with the effects of the equations of the field of the theory of General Relativity. But, with base in the gravodynamic such gravity waves can occur in monopoles and they are not of the spacetime since that gravity wave is originated and transmitted in the vacuum and maybe be superposed, with which they obey to linear relations. These conceptual differences, however, do not constitute an important distinction in the measurement of the gravitational waves due to their great weakness, nor either suppress absolutely the relations nonlinear in the equations while in the theory it is necessary to maintain the graviton of spin two, that in agreement with Feynman is necessary for to explain the bending of the light under a scalar field gravitational and gravity interaction with himself. Thus, the things definitively the existence of the superluminal speed of the graviton or of the speed of the gravitational wave depend on the measurement that will make in the existing projects with that objective.
The discovery that the author makes with respect to the process of enrichment in energy that supports the transition of virtual particles to real particles, implies that the particles pass less to more inertial. This in agreement with the theory of the author, formulated in 1969, about which particles in states less inertial they are quicker, must to cause the deceleration of real particles in relation to the speeds of virtual particles. Then the initial assumption of equality between the speeds of a virtual particle and their real pair is false. Is the deceleration that undergoes virtual photons when becoming real photons very quantitatively important? Is the deceleration that undergoes virtual graviton when becoming real graviton very important? Are these quantitative changes the sufficiently crucial thing to exceed the qualities of electrical-magnetic and gravitational "static" fields when changing to electromagnetic and gravitational dynamic fields? Are different qualitatively "static" fields in front of dynamic fields? Is quantum of the electrical-magnetic field different qualitatively in front of real photon? Is quantum of "static" gravitational field different qualitatively in front of real graviton? But, in any case the speed of the virtual pair of the real photon is greater than c. (14 of August of 2004)
Tom Van Flandern and others physicist formulated, that waves radiated by the binary Pulsars are not waves of gravity but if some form of electromagnetism. But, the author believes that if they can be gravity waves by extreme weakness of this radiation that it has prevented detects. In addition because this radiation is the remainder that is without explaining once including all the known mechanic- electromagnetic effects that cause lost of energy which can reappear in radiation form.
This remainder for binary pulsar Hulse-Taylor, PSR B1913+16, agrees with the rate of orbital decay predicted by General Relativity although the value of this rat really is up approximately in the 0,3% of the considered value.
In the equations of estimation of the gravitational radiation of General Relativity the real graviton has mass 0 and this massless is assumed in order to make agree the prognosis exactly with the observed value. However when the rates are combined of orbital decay of binary pulsars PSR B1913+16 and PSR B1534+12 it is obtained that the mass of the real graviton is not zero but maximum less than 1.35342 x 10-52 grams, with a 90% of confidence. This superior limit for the mass of the real graviton was calculated, in the 2002, by Lee Samuel Finn and Patrick J. Sutton of the Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, of the University of the State of the Pennsylvania, USA.
The value of the supposed mass of real graviton smaller than 1.35342 x 10-52 grams is closely together of the value of the superior limit of the mass of the real photon which is less than 10-51 grams, in agreement with its more recent calculation of the 2003, made by Jun Luo and its colleagues in the Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China. And very far from the value superior limit of the mass of real graviton less than 4.5 x 10-66 grams, considered by S S Gershtein, A A Logunov and M A Mestvirishvili, in 1997, with base in the observed parameters of the expansion of the Universe, and that is consistent with the value less than 0,5 x 10-65 grams considered by K Staniukovich and M Vasiliev towards 1968 with base in the relation of Einstein E = m c2.
If it is assumed that the true value of the mass of the real graviton is closed to 1.35342 x 10-52 grams really radiation of binary pulsars is electromagnetic radiation, like Tom Van Flandern has said.
Of course the verification of all the theses of Relativity, that have been put under on approval, adjusts of impressive way with the results of the experiments, as it happens to the prediction about the gravitational radiation on the part of a system of binary pulsar, in individual in front of PSR B1913+16 pulsar with an error of only the 0.3%. But, also it is impressive that this error can lead to the absolute rejection of the thesis of which this radiation is gravitational. Then the theory of General Relativity can be bad.
The need to adopt a quantum explanation of the gravity, invalid the special relativity with being that the general relativity of Einstein does not derive from the special relativity and that all the failures of correspondence with the physical order of the nature correspond entirely to general relativity.
This it is due to that the experiments, from the quantum interpretation, indicate that the speed of gravity surpasses the speed of light, which violates the fundamental principles of the special relativity.
Tom finds that special relativity can replaces by relativity of Lorentz that if permits speeds greater that speed of light.
If the fields around the charges or magnets in rest spread with the speed of light, then the equations of Maxwell are bad because do not include the cross aberration, the main demonstration of a finite speed for the propagation of the field, according Tom.
The fact that the equations are correct in v/c (3.1), indicates that the speed of propagation of the gravity field should be very quick in comparison with the speed of light, because the refusal of the cross aberration is the logical equivalent to adopt an infinite speed.
If the equations of Maxwell worked with fields spread to the speed of light, then also they would work for the pressure of the light. That is to say, they would cover the effect of Poynting-Robertson, for which not fit out.
In reality, the equations of Maxwell (3.2) like to rule out the existence of aberration assume the infinite speed of the field but without giving any physical explanation.
In Lorentz, on the other hand, the true transports of the electric or magnetic forces are the virtual photons. These really would travel to infinite speed, not thus the real photons that travel to speed of light. Therefore, the supposed speed of propagation of light is not physical with respect to electrostatic force. In addition, the same equations of Lorentz permit to interpret them in a physically consistent form if the moment transported travels to greater speed that speed of light.
Now, we know that the relativity of Lorentz, that is experimentally viable, makes possible the propagation ahead of the time and the propagation beyond the speed of light, since that assumes the infinite speed for the virtual photon, that is the transport of the electrostatic force, according to the most reasonable physical interpretation of the equations.
(3.1) v/c knows like the effect of second order of the speed of light in the formula of calculation of the average of the speed of light , in a round trip of departure-return, since a source of light to an objective that reflects it. This formula is 2L / t = c [1 x (v/c)2], where L is the distance between the source and the objective, and t is the interim elapsed.
(3.2) Tom Van Flandern assumes that every transmission of a force with finite speed through a field implies the effect of aberration, which neither in the traditional theory of the electromagnetic field appears defined neither in the usual experiments occurs, if is a matter of electrostatic or magneto static fields. On the other hand, the equations of Maxwell predict the existence for charges or magnets in movement accelerated of an electromagnetic radiation that spreads to the speed of light c that it published in 1865. Nevertheless, does not it exist none doubts about that relativity of Lorentz permits greater speeds that c. Neither for the author exists doubts about that Tom has reason, because the static gravity field transports virtual gravitons.
The special relativity has like fundamental premise that nothing can spread quicker than the speed of light. Then, the thesis about that the speed of gravity is greater than speed of light is a forgery of the special relativity? Yes and not.
The new interpretation of the special relativity required is not more forgery of this that is it the general relativity in front of the gravity of Newton (3.3).
In both cases, the early theory was incomplete more than badly. Due this is necessary to examine which should be the change about the special relativity so that be consistent with all the existing experimental evidence.
A brief revision of the history of the relativity provides a framework valid for a proposal.
The "principle of relativity ", according to which the laws of the physics are the same views since any framework inertial, comes of the 19 century, when was popularized for H. Poincare (3.4).
The well acquaintances "transformations of Lorentz embody that principle, but where lost originality it went when Lorentz it adopted them for its own theory of the relativity, published in 1904, inside the context of the "ether".
The main contribution of Einstein with its famous work of 1905 went to add to the relativity a second principle, consistent in which the speed of light will be locally equal for all the observers, without considering its own state of movement.
The two principles of the relativity, by itself, do not require of the existence of an ether, or more generally, of the existence of a framework of reference preferred. In addition, although, the relativists have always closed with the explanation given by Einstein of gravity as the curvature of spacetime, this is not an essential characteristic of the relativity.
In 1920, Eddington considered like the most equivalent explanation, of the characteristics of the general relativity, that of the "refraction of the middle", which retains the space and time of Euclides, in the same original mathematical formalism.
In essence, the curvature of light, the gravitational landslide to red, the advance of the perihelion of Mercury and the time retard of radar can be consequence of the propagation of the electromagnetic waves through a middle of refraction subordinate, that is done denser in proportion to the proximity of a source of gravity (3.5). Certain electromagnetic wave characteristic of the matter would cause these phenomenons.
The main objection to this simple interpretation of the relativity is that it is required of a greater speed, that speed of light, for the propagation of the gravity. This cannot consider like a fatal objection since the experiments indicate its existence.
(3.3) Remember that said integration is fact by means of a "handy trick".
relativity the follow work can be consulted, History of the theories of the
relativity of Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein. Valeri V. Dvoeglazov,
The theory of the Relativity of Lorentz explains the effects of deformation of the length and the time, that suffer the material systems with the velocity, as the consequence of the molecular and atomic reorder in the direction of the movement, through the ether.
(3.5) See Tom Van Flandern, 1993, pp. 62-67 and Tom Van Flandern, 1994. The author, also, had presented it in some articles published in the Sunday Weekly of "El Siglo". Santafe of Bogota. 1970.
In the most recent years, it has been disputed if the nature seems more as it conceives the theory of the special relativity of Einstein or more well as it does the theory of the relativity of Lorentz. This confrontation in front of the results of the prominent experiments to test the relativity carried out, which are:
A. The experiment of Fresnel favors the existence of the ether (3.6), although the einstenian relativists find the form to explain it.
The telescope of Fresnel, full of air - water, showed that the aberration of the light, originating from a star, remains constant, to the to pass through a middle of water, although smoothed out its speed near the 30%. This it favors the existence of a framework preferred, because the local speed of light did not affect the aberration, which shows that the aberration went determined out of the telescope and not by the local conditions of the observer.
This experiment favors the relativity of Lorentz, although, with greater difficulty the einstenian relativists could explain it.
B. The experiments of Michelson - Morley are the first that strongly are favorable to the special relativity of Einstein.
The speed of light turns out to be independent of the state of movement, still with high speed, or rest of the observer.
However, in the decade of 1980 serious considerations turn up in favor of the constitution of the local field of gravity as a framework preferred. In 1987, Beckmann popularized this idea and discussed amply (3.7).
The fact that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the source is a characteristic of all kinds of waves. However, that also is it in front of the velocity of the observer that if is special.
A form to reach this double independence is through the method of Einstein of the synchronization of the clocks. If another convention is used to synchronize the clocks, just as subordinating them to a common inertial framework(3.8) then the speed of light is different in each direction, when observers they measure it, that move with regard to that special framework.
A trip of departure return of the light, if a clock only measures the time elapsed, does not depend on the synchronization. However, the velocity in a form Lorentzian affects the rat of an ordinary clock. Then, the measurement of the speed will appear invariable in all the directions.
When a clock is used whose rat not this affected by its speed of translation, for example, the pulses of light in the strong field of a massive binary star, apparently permits that the velocity of the relative observers it detects according medium local of a field of gravity .
Of Agreement with the publications of Einstein on the special relativity, two new experimental results favor it. They it published in 1913. Nevertheless, Sagnac and Sitter challenged these experiments.
Sagnac demanded a forgery of the special relativity on the Land, due to that the local velocity of observers affects the speed of light, when the observers are on platforms in rotation. Sagnac showed that the experiment of Michelson and Morley, carried out in such frameworks in rotation, showed changes inside a band, and concludes that, though the lineal movement was relative, on the other hand the rotational movement was absolute.
In turn, Sitter observed that the stellar aberration (3.9) went equal for both components of distant binary stars, although through the relative velocity of each one with respect to another observer was a little different. Consequently, the velocity in some special framework (3.10) determines the aberration more than the relative velocity between source and observer.
Of such way, both experiments finally struck the special relativity.
On the other hand, the experiment of Michelson-Gale of 1925, that wraps the similar experiments of Michelson-Morley, presented the existence of a contradiction of the special relativity. The history has concluded that this experiment is essentially another demonstration of the effect of Sagnac, and it does not mention like a significant and independent experiment. However, in 1938, Ives and Stilwell removed a similar conclusion to this of Michelson, and they disputed that its experiment favored the relativity of Lamor-Lorentz on the special relativity. However, still today, this last experiment appears in the list of confirmed experiments to favor of the special relativity.
(3.6) Ether it introduced for to endow to the propagation middle light. Its great defect went to conceive it mechanically. That is to say, of atomic composition. At present, in the quantum theory on the vacuum the ether it reintroduces but it considers composed by packages of energy in the scale of Planck.
(3.7) Said discussion it gave in the daily wage Galilean u.edu/dring/gehtmls/gehome.html y Apeiron redshift.vif.co and Apeiron redshift.vif.corn/default.htm, and occasionally in the Goal Research Bulletin www. metaresearch. org. In addition, remember you that the invariance principle of c is a weak principle of the speed of light. Today it knows that speed of light c in inertial systems only is a valid average. Indeed, in this systems the speed of light maybe being one, c+v, in going travel and either in back travel, c-v. However, the average is c = (c+v+c-v)/2. Thus, the speed of light is according Newton-Galilei transformation.
(3.8) It makes in Global Positioning System satellites or in the astronomers synchronize phenomena to a framework barycentre using the time provided by the distant Pulsars.
(3.9) Stellar aberration is the discrepancy in the observation of a star due to the rotational and orbital movements of the observer. If it takes together with, the aberration is the aberration of the planet.
(3.10) The speed of light, in gravity field, with respect of distant gravity fields.
C. The experiment on the increase in the life of the muon favors especially to the relativity of Lorentz.
When in the 1960 years, the experiment was carried out about the time of life of the muon the Lorentzian relativity had been forgot. However, some questions went facts about if the muon, to highest velocities, really enlarged its time of life or if this increase was reciprocal in inertial systems. The special relativity assures that was reciprocal but it was not possible to test it.
By that epoch, the
effect of the velocity on clocks based on subordinate velocities to inertial
frameworks it considers not extraordinary, instead of the relative velocity of
the clocks. This consideration it does in the experiment of Hafele-Keating that
compares atomic clocks, in trip around the world. They travel in opposite
directions according a clock at home. In addition, this it repeated in a
subsequent experiment developed by C.OR. Alley, in the
In turn, the Global Positioning System (GPS) confirmed the fact that all the atomic clocks on satellites, that move to high velocities, in different directions, can be synchronized simultaneously and continuously with each another and with all the clocks in Land, without the corrections of "simultaneity of the special relativity". Initially, this also it seems to falsify the special relativity. But, when it practices an additional inspection, in which were changed continuously the corrections of synchronization for each existing clock, it so happened that the predictions of the special relativity are completely came true for any local framework co being moved. To avoid the urgencies of that complexity, the analysis with GPS (3.11) it make totally in the Land centered in a framework inertial. That is to say, in a field of local gravity. The adjustment of the clocks, prior to their orbital launch, to compensate the einstenian relativistic effects, hidden the fact that all these clocks go more slowly than the clocks in the Land, if said rat by its movement is compensated in orbit, and reciprocally that themselves is not given if since the satellites the clocks in the Land are seen.
Three went the main circumstances that conspired to do that to seem the special relativity the best solution to describe the nature in the beginnings of the 20th century. These circumstances were:
1. The classics thought about the ether as a universal field more than a local field. They did not take in serious that each local field of gravity can serve like a framework preferred for local observers, although, that seems today to be the case.
2. Broglie not yet had discovered the undulatory nature of the matter. For which there was not a logical reason for to expect that the rats of clocks, based on atomic oscillations, it affected by the movement of the observer, in the same form that the speed of light would be affected by the movement of the observer. This is in virtue to movements of the observer that the experiments not detected. Nevertheless, that also now seems that it is true (3.12).
3. The prediction done by the general relativity of the effect of the curvature of the light, supposedly verified in the solar eclipse of 1919 (3.13), it gave to the special relativity and general relativity great credibility because extensively it believed that the general relativity this based on the special relativity.
But the general relativity usually is implemented by means of the use of a preferred framework closely coincident with the field of local gravity, with the consequences that only the common characteristics of the special relativity and the Lorentzian relativity are integrated in the general relativity. In this way, itself are not included in the general relativity the two main differences between both theories. These differences are the reciprocity of the enlargement of time between two inertial frameworks of special relativity and its asymmetry in the relativity of Lorentz. On the other hand, the equivalence of all the inertial frameworks in the special relativity and the existence of a framework preferred in the relativity of Lorentz.
Of another part: 1 The enlargement of time of the special relativity is equivalent to the slow clocks of the Lorentzian relativity, although, the relativity it bases in a universal time different of the time that is borne in electromagnetic clocks, that are affected for the movement. 2 The contraction of the space of the special relativity is equivalent to contraction of the sticks of the meters in the Lorentzian relativity. 3 The change of moment of the bodies in movement of the special relativity is equal to the Lorentzian relativity.
But, the more important is that the law of addition of the velocities between two frameworks, none of which is the framework preferred, is different in the Lorentzian relativity in front of special relativity for which in the relativity of Lorentz-Lamor physically greater velocities can exist that speed of light .
Next to the end of its career, Lorentz declared, "my theory can obtain all the same results as the special relativity, but perhaps not with the same simplicity. Today, it can assure, " The special relativity can explain all the experimental results that the Lorentzian relativity is able, but not with the same simplicity". However, the special relativity cannot explain the speed of propagation of the quickest gravity than speed of light while the relativity of Lorentz-Lamor yes.
(3.11) They are 24
satellites in terrestrial orbit placed by the Department of Defense of the
(3.12) Tom Van Flandern, 1993, p.72-77.
(3.13) In 2001, Paul Marmet probed that Broglie could not to measure the deflection of the light in 1919 because he did not have technical mediums for do it. Then, Broglie lied for to favor to Einstein. To measure the deflection of light by the solar gravity requires controlling the effect of solar plasma that is very strong. In 1919, this was impossibility.
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