Alfonso León Guillén Gómez


aguillen@gmx.net


Bogota, Columbia, 1969


Copyrights


 


About of this work


This work was written in 1969 and published in the Dominical Weekly of the newspaper "El Siglo" in four articles. December 1969- February 1970.


Este trabajo también el lector puede verlo en español (This work also the reader can see it in Spanish).

TABLE OF CONTENT

1 INTRODUCTION

2 SUBSTANCE AND FIELD

3 THE GRAVITATION ACCORDING TO EINSTEIN

4 THIS IS KNOWN AT THE MOMENT OF THE GRAVITY

5 A SPEED GREATER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT

6 AUTHOR´ WORKS

 

 

1 INTRODUCTION

 

Within the many questions what exists around the theory of Relativity there is one to emphasize. This talks about the relation, from the gnoseologic point of view, between this theory and its author and is: What does part corresponds to scientific knowledge? What does part corresponds to ideological knowledge of the wise person? In other words, the question is to establish of the theory of Relativity the objective part as soon as reflected of the reality and, by the other, the subjective part as soon as the deformation of the reality when being reflected in the conscience through the biological and ideological structures of the person. Therefore we must clarify, in first term, that the author of Relativity is Albert Einstein and, in second, place to speak about the scientist and man reunited in him; since Einstein the scientist cannot separate of Einstein the man, as well as the scientific thought of Einstein cannot either separate absolutely of its thought of concrete man, that is to say, of man with biological, psychological and ideological structures. We must divide our inspection in the man and the wise person. Then we will have the human dimension of Einstein corresponds to one of an impeller of the science of small bourgeois ideology. In effect, its philosophical thought formed in the subjectivist sensualism of Hume and Bekerley. Already of adult its conception of the world was Neokantian. The dimension of the scientist however is materialistic and revolutionary, of such way, when reuniting scientific and man we found that the interpretations of Einstein of their discoveries are taken root in agnostic prejudices

 

In its famous abstraction of the elevator that raises animated of a movement uniformly accelerated it has a system so can be or not a gravitational field; everything depends on which the observer is outside or within the elevator. "The person, who is within the elevator, cannot determine if the elevator is hung of the cable, in the gravitational field, or if he experiences an acceleration directed upwards. In effect, as much in a case as in the other the objects will fall in the same way to the ground of the elevator " [1]. But, the certain thing is that the gravitation field is not created neither it is destroyed by means of the transformation of the reference system; objectively exist with independence of our conscience and before her. Einstein the empirocriticist rejects the objective truth and its cognoscibility, that is to say, if the thing even exists in itself is like something not different from a mere complex of sensations which is rebelled to the knowledge us, this is "' the thing for us"; Einstein was a philosophical idealist.


[1] The consequence in Quantum Physics of the principle of equivalence between a gravitational system and a accelerated system of General Relativity is that by changing the reference system the existence of virtual graviton vanishes. This constitutes a major impediment to the unification of both theories.

The slipping of the scientist in your task of constructing a system, remember that all system perishes, is consequence of the natural deformation that undergoes the reality to being reflected by the conscience. Question does not treat, consequently, to condemn but to understand but, also to surpass. Nowadays the necessity prevails to put under critic Relativity in order to break with the ideological limits that to Einstein the time imposed at which this theory was formulated.

 

One of the definitive conquests of this theory is to have discovered in the nature a further speed impossible to transgress, but the formulation of his author was not it. No, according to Einstein the speed of light is: last limit possible in the Universe [2]. The speed of light as soon as faced the natural power of the man was equipped with powers that it does not have and it began to hang, like sword of Damocles, on the human destiny on account that the natural power that faced it was unloving in the belief that "in the principle it was the verb".


[2] That is, end the principle of Newton immediate action to distance. But, as Bell's theorem proved in front of the EPR paradox is necessary to abandon the speed of light c as an upper limit to any transfer of information or the concept of objective reality.

 

Which the reason to mysticize the reality?

 

It is certain that a last speed was discovered, but why the speed of light? [3] .


[3] One thing is that the speed of light c, in the absence of gravity, is a constant for any observer and another thing is that is a maximum speed limit. Petar K. Anastasovski (1998) developed the transformation analogous to the Lorentz to v>c (thus, x´= √(1 - c2/v2)  (x + vt), y´=y, z´=z, t´= 1/√(1 - c2/v2) [t + √(c2(v2-c2)/v4  x]).

 

Does another speed exist or others?

 

As the reality is not extracted of the concept but the concept of the reality is possible to us to accept with Goethe that in the beginning was the action. In order to try to solve our question it is precise to us to present the different relative forms in which the physical matter exists.

 

In the course of the adventure of the thought in its perennial approximation to absolute truth has been discovered that the matter exists in the phases: Substance and Field.

 

In order to clarify his difference it is precise to us to treat about the structure of the matter: This is, on the one hand, wave and, by the other, corpuscle; that is to say, homogenous continuum and divisible, in the first sense, and particle indivisible, and infinitesimal, in the second. As wave is energy whereas like corpuscle, mass. But, we must to put in clear: the energy is scattered mass while the mass is concentrated energy. Of such way, the structural unit of the matter is in each one of its phases dual. Each unitary structure is, simultaneously, a dispersion of mass and a concentration of energy connected according to scheme: where the scattered mass finishes, wave, begins the concentrated energy, corpuscle; where the concentrated energy finishes, corpuscle, begins the dispersed mass, wave. Such unit of the corpuscle and the wave is a great law of the nature.

 

The structure of the Field and the Substance are corpuscular-undulatory like phases that are of the matter. But since they are two qualities different from the matter do not have equal meaning and therefore reality the corpuscular-undulatory structure in the field that in the substance.

 

The corpuscular-undulatory structure of the matter constitutes a Unit of opposites. These two aspects at the same time in conflict and interrelation form the totality of the development process that promote and solve.

 

Can these two contradictory aspects be placed in the same plane? No. "The development of the contradictory aspects, in any contradiction, is always unequal. Some times it seems equilibrium exists of forces but only it is temporary and relative, while, the inequality in the development always continues being the fundamental form. Of both contradictory aspects one must be main and the other the secondary aspects. The main aspect is the one that plays the role leader in the contradiction. The character of the things is established fundamentally of the main aspect of the contradiction that occupies the dominant position ".

 

The main aspect of the contradiction corpuscle-wave is, in the field, the wave; in the substance, the particle. In effect: the micro-objects that we named quanta are excited states of the waves. These waves always are quantified, for that reason the energy emission is always precise; another thing happens in the macro-cosmos where the properties ondulatories are practically made invisible, since the wave tends to the zero when increasing mass.

 

Is this a static situation? No, either. "The main aspect and the secondary aspect of a contradiction transform the one into the other and the character of the things changes consequently".

 

The secondary aspect, of the contradiction corpuscle-wave is in the field the particle; in the substance the wave. As the importance of the corpuscular aspect in the field grows this one tends to substance. As the importance of the undulatory aspect in the substance grows this tends to the field. Those transformations prepare the change of quality of the field in substance and the substance in field.

 

"Therefore the quality of a thing is established fundamentally of the main aspect of the contradiction that has been transformed into dominant. When the main aspect of the contradiction, on dominant position, undergoes a change the quality of the thing changes consequently, like result of which a jump operates".

 

That jump of the quality field to quality substance or of the quality substance to quality field is the jump of the determination of wave by the particle to determination of the particle by the wave, in the last case, and of the determination of the wave by the particle, in first. The qualitative difference between the substance and the field had been anticipated by some post relativists physicists, who although, deduced that the quanta of the substance had mass in rest while the quanta of the field no, also is certain, that they did not know to give a correct explanation it.

 

It is once again possible to emphasize the philosophical error of Einstein that considers the existence of the matter and the field but he says: "it is not possible qualitatively to distinguish between matter (read substance) and field. The matter is the greatest storage of energy; but the field that surrounds to particle also represents energy although in an incomparably smaller amount. By this it is possible to say: the matter (substance) is the place where the energy concentration is very great and the field where it is the concentration of small energy ". In fact, the field is one of the two physical categories of the matter, the other is the substance. There is not matter and field but substance and field are matter.


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2 SUBSTANCE AND FIELD

The substance exists in four main states while the field in three until now known. The states of the substance are: solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma. The states of the field are: nuclear field, electromagnetic field, and gravitational field [4].


[4] In 1969, it was not well-known that the nuclear field is in fact two fields: the weak nuclear field and the strong nuclear field.


To each one in its double corpuscular-undulatory nature a certain composition corresponds. In the states of the substance the corpuscle is the molecule and the atom for the solid, liquid and gaseous; the elementary particles (neutron, proton, electron) for the plasma. In the states of the field: pi meson for the nuclear field [5]; photon for electromagnetic field and graviton for the gravitational field. The nature of the corpuscle serves to physically identify the type of matter. Between each one of the states of the substance and the field a connection exists as well as the connection between the substance and the field exists. Of such way, all the states of the matter are able to transform themselves into others, keeping the laws from the conservation of the mass and the energy. The general transmutation of the states of the matter expresses the unit of the world and the movement.


[5] Really W+, W- and Z0 for the weak nuclear field and gluons for the strong nuclear field.


The unit of all the physical types of the matter and the relative character of limits that separate them are put in relief in the common nature of its more important properties: mass, energy, speed, moment, impulse, etc.; of equal way, the material movement is, in a sense, the passage of the graviton to photon; of the photon to elementary particles, which when being combined form the nucleus; these with electronic covering, arise atoms and from them the molecules. In the other sense, the molecules dissociate in atoms, these it break in nucleus and they disintegrated in elementary particles, as well, in photons of which the gravitons would are originated. That is to say, the matter while as totality is One like movement matter complicates in a sense, and matter decomposes in the other.

Due the objectives that we set out to reach the exhibition develops the second sense, that is, the one that goes of less to simplest. Also we do not resign to take each state considered in if same for to represent the reality more possibly exact; this is, in a dynamic image.


In the solid state the molecular movement is closed to absolute rest: each molecule vibrates to the length of an axis that corresponds to minimum positional energy according to particular geometric pattern of a certain class of substance; in addition, it has the permanent and definitive selection of next being the intermolecular distances considerably smaller than the same size of molecules. The state, solid is the poorest energy simultaneously the richest in stability of the mass.


The enrichment of the energy of the solid state causes which the molecules begin to move more quickly, with greater amplitude around its fixed positions. Over certain positive increase of energy the molecules will leave their positions and will invade the space of their neighbors; if it is continued providing to energy to molecules, then they will enter the zones of vibration of the contiguous ones. It is the liquid state in which the molecules continuously change of neighbors, they approach the dominions of the near ones, and the molecules are as large as separated by spaces of the magnitude of the molecules.


When providing energy with constant way to liquid state the molecules move with more speed and on longer distances being the external effect the expansion of the liquid. Some molecules at near the surface are susceptible to move outside the space like molecules of the gaseous state. This phenomenon of vaporization is the transit of the liquid state to gaseous state. "A gas is a congregation of an enormous number of molecules, hitting to each other and turning aside themselves of direction in each encounter, distanced by great empty spaces, moving in all directions".


The continuous and progressive addition of energy to gaseous state increases the speed of molecules which are broken in atoms and takes electrons to atoms. The burning cloud that forms is luminous; composed of excited atoms, ions and electrons in which take place changed interrupted; the ions and electrons are attracted and precipitated between if giving off other electrons. It is the first "cold" plasma. One purer it is obtained with greater amounts of energy until reaching the power level that exists in the entrails of stars; then, no longer it has in the cloud more than atomic nucleus and elementary particles. Here, processes of nuclear fusion are triggered where mass by energy changes, also the elementary particles are disintegrated in photons. The transformation of elementary particles of the substance in quanta of the field is the transformation of the plasma in electromagnetic field, of the substance in field. The plasma is the end of the substance, the field further begins.


The electromagnetic field is "a qualitative variety of the matter, to it is inherent as much the energy as the mass; but the particles of the electromagnetic field only exist moving at a unique finite speed: at the speed of light. Stopped photons are not known. The mass of the photon in movement is proportional to number of oscillations per second of the electromagnetic waves, is to say this totally determined by the wave that surrounds the particle ".


A greater gain of energy in the electromagnetic state will cause that the photon it disperses in gravitons with which the electromagnetic field will become gravitational field [6].


[6] The gravity comes from the top of the high energies during the quantum era after Big-Bang. Therefore, gravity happened before electromagnetism.


The theory according to which the gravitational field is one of the states of the matter corresponds consequently to most modern investigations not being, the this point of view of Einstein for that the gravitation is not a phenomenon of the material movement but of the conditions of this, that is, of the spacetime.


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3 THE GRAVITATION ACCORDING TO EINSTEIN

In the time at which Einstein formulated the theory of Relativity the conception of the physicists about the substance and the field was which between these any class of connection did not exist; since the substance had mass while the field no. Einstein discovered the unity between the substance and the field; as well as he discovered the transformation between both.


The field has energy and the field has mass as soon as the energy has mass. Additionally, the mass it disintegrates and forms the field and the energy it concentrates and forms the substance. But the absolute truth is not work of a man and Einstein had to incur, fatally in the error. In effect: although Einstein puts in clear the objectivity of the electromagnetic field as one of the forms of the existence of the matter, also is certain that material movement in this state he gave by finished matter. The correct solution that Einstein found when fitting electromagnetic field as the previous step of the substance were dimmed by its metaphysical criterion to give by found the final state of the matter. In ahead, no longer he could make other discovery of importance in relation to states of the field. It is as well as the phenomenon of the gravitation approached Einstein having by principle that to elaborate a different interpretation to consider the gravitational field like another state more of the matter; since, for him, the matter finished in the electromagnetic field. But if the gravitation is not a form of existence of the matter what can be? Einstein responds "a deformation of the spacetime".


Could he say another thing?


When the electromagnetic phenomena were discovered it thought that the matter did not exist beyond the gaseous state. This caused that when it explained electromagnetism some physicists conceived the electromagnetic field like the space, for example, the scientist D. D. Volson affirmed that electromagnetic field is called to the space that surrounds to magnets or currents ". Einstein, in a true economy of thought, expressed something similar for the gravitation: “gravitational field is called to spacetime deformation that surrounds to bodies ".


It is right or unjust our critic. Einstein said: "since according to our conceptions modern, also the elementary particles of the matter are by their nature neither but nor less than condensations of the electromagnetic field, our present image of the world knows two totally different realities by its content, the ether of the gravitation and the electromagnetic field, or the space and the matter ".


"Our present image of the world" according to Einstein is very similar to that other image of the 1800 world.... we know two totally different realities by its content: "the ether of electromagnetism and the substance, or, the space and the matter".


Analogous or no Einstein has the word: "the modern theory of Relativity it bases in the division of the physical reality in the metric field (Gravitation), on the one hand, and in the electromagnetic field and the matter (substance), by another one". If subsists still some doubt about the position of Einstein with respect to gravitational field let us to cite some publisher of the theory of Relativity. Thus, Bertrand Rusell declares: "In the proximity of a matter piece it has like a hill in the spacetime; this hill raises high more and more when it approaches to mantle; it finishes in a true top. However, by the law of the cosmic laziness (exists truly such law?) a body that approaches the vicinity of the hill would not try to climb it, but that surrounded it. This is the essence of the theory of Relativity”. Whereas Paul Couderc writes: "Einstein cherished the hope of being able to explain the effects of the gravitation by an appropriate geometry spacetime"; and finally, the historian A. V Shugailin attests; according to Einstein, any substance makes the tetradimensional world curved. This curvature is expressed in form of gravity force.


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4 THIS IS KNOWN AT THE MOMENT OF THE GRAVITY

Einstein assimilated all the physical tradition previous to its time; in special the one of the last times in which phenomena were investigated that, not adjust in their development to conceptions of the classic physics made a quick reelaboration necessary of the scientific thought. The revolutionary change that was approached had been prepared by the work of many wise people: Maxwell, Hertz, Lamor, Poincare, and others. Fina1ly, announced Einstein with greater clarity; it frees of the ballast of the old conceptions that weighed too much in the conscience of the physicists nursed in them when they seemed destined to govern by always to thought of the humanity. Einstein had the genius to solve the scientific necessity of its time at the moment at which all the phenomenology of the spirit unfolded on the physical understanding of the world was in a"cul of sac".


The classic conception considered to Universe like an infinite set of "centers of activity" in perennial modification of the state of its movement, which was relative to variation of the coordinates of bodies with respect to those of others. The reality of these physical points, in the being "as soon as was able to act independently of the others, at least in the sense in that they affirmed his own individual to be against all the others; the accelerations that suffered were caused by the force fields that acted throughout the line that united them and whose magnitude depended on its mass and separation. Among them the no be, the no action, the absolute nothing, although, in the last period it was replaced by: mysterious medium: the "ether". These material bodies were submerged in an absolute spacetime. The coherent image that obtained of the world the classic physics encountered over unsolvable experimental and logical contradictions. Whereas never it known that are the force fields the first "obstacle" came from the discovery of perpendicular forces to the line between the charges that created them, as well as of its dependency of the speed of these; in addition the famous paradox to interaction of the ether with the light not thus with the material bodies and finally the bankruptcy of the principle of "remote action" and "action instantaneous" that was from the disconnected spacetime of the force field being simultaneously, of the transformations of the classic mechanics when settling down the invariance of the speed of light.


Backs to history the old physical thought treats with to fold to destiny and to maintain its rationality at the cost of becoming, irrational. Then, it happened to it what to ostrich when it hides its head at sight of the hunter. Gathered the conscience on if and separated of the reality while it tried to find the filosofal stone, in this case the dependency of the speed of light of the observer or of the source, which obtained was to verify its independence over and over again with which it left the way laid to formulation of the objective solution found by Einstein, in the Relativity, in which it fit the theory to matter until limits that the spirit of his time allowed him.


Einstein, the young person, in 1921 exposed the new theory in conferences given in the University of Princenton. The conferences were published in 1922 and several times were reedited soon with title of "The Meaning of Relativity", in it raised the foundations of "the new" gravitation this mark the turn of the synthesizer-generalizer Einstein to the Einstein in if and for if. Einstein becomes Einstein, as consequence, stayed to the theory weighing on his "I". The constructed scaffolding this way constitutes the General Relativity that only could be verified in three cases and solely by astronomical route; it is possible to say, that the same formula the mature conception of the gravitation and is the adult vision of the wise person, that is, the fine speculation of the young discoverer who passes the rest of his life meditating over his finding.


Einstein solved "'enfant" of the classic physics not trying to hide the Sun with the hands but letting it shine its splendor for its glory yet. Einstein fused the space-time to force field the root of all the truth of the Relativity simultaneously that of its errors because, although, it is certain that it eliminated the "remote action" and "action” instantaneous being the base of his theory of Restricted Relativity, understanding it from General Relativity, also is certain, was it, of the General as far as fusing the space-time to force field solved the gravitation like originated fictitious forces in the tetradimensional curved world but, which had Einstein to unite is the spacetime to same Universe [7].

 

[7] Spacetime is defined by Einstein as structural property of the gravitational field, therefore excludes it from all other forms of material existence. This is a fundamental error because the spacetime truly is dimensional structure of matter in motion, which gives it its capabilities to contain itself and transform itself (Thesis of the author, 2007).


It is, then, the merit of the einstenian theory of the gravitation mathematical one, before philosophical one. The contemporary theory when examining the equations of Einstein of the gravitational field, if these could be put under quantification, anticipates and conjugates the quanta of the field, gravitons, with the gravitation waves that, however, neither direct nor indirectly have been discovered.


The question is the one of which the Einstein’s equations of the gravitation when they take of the weak field the intense they allow to anticipate gravitons of similar way as the quantification of the Maxwell’s equations of the electromagnetic field lead to photons. But the quantification of the Einstein’s equations of the gravitation is not definitely possible. This means that Einstein placed the basic stone for the present theory that surpasses the ideological limitation of the wise person when giving by finished the matter in the electromagnetic field, error of the same nature that the one of its predecessors, who also eliminated the matter, although, in the substance "history seems that it is repeated”.


Nowadays, according to works of Fierz, Vavilov, Pauli, Blojinset, Shirokov, Ambartsumian, and Landau, between the most important authors, the gravitational field is one of the states of the matter in movement. The conception of the gravitation as "a deformation of the space-time" already has listened to the trumpet of the judgment final "El king is dead, lives the king".


The new scientific opinion is the one that the gravitational field is a form of the matter that is manifested under the aspects of the graviton-gravitational wave, able to transmute in the electromagnetic field or any other material state.


The postulates of the new theory say:


"Portions of gravitation exist, the calls gravitons that are radiated spontaneously by all the bodies. The intensity of irradiation of gravitons is as much greater as greater is the nuclear temperature (reserve of energy in the interior of the nucleus}, just as the intensity of emission of the quanta of light or, more simply, the capacity of luminescence of an incandescent body is as much greater as greater is its temperature.


However, the intensity of the irradiation of gravitons by the bodies does not depend on the temperature of all the body, but of the inner temperature of elementary particles, their components, that is to say, of the excitation degree. Since all the elementary particles oscillate and these oscillations do not operate in the vacuum "emptiness" that does not exist, but in the field, that is to say, in an environment with pressure, it is possible to be supposed that during each oscillation the particle extremely gives a small portion of energy to the surrounding medium. We called to equivalent material of this portion of energy mass of the graviton and to radiated energy graviton. In addition it agrees to suppose that the amount of radiated gravitons, being predetermined the excitation degree is proportional to mass of the particle that emits those gravitons.


Think the following hydrodynamic model: two tubes opened by both ends are located so that their orifices are to certain distance one of another one. In the tubes an explosive substance is burned and the gases of the combustion in a hurry by the orifices of both tubes.


At first sight it seems that the tubes come near. It is because among them a zone arises from elevated pressure, diminishes the affluence to it and the reactive force of the spurts who emit themselves to opposite orifices approximates the tubes.


Now one has two bodies that emit gravitons in all the directions create a field of gravitation, being the field strength greater than the one of its sides and the irradiation of gravitons, by both bodies in the sense of this field of greater intensity will be minor than the others.


The reactive action of the gravitons that are expelled in opposite directions is what pushes and attracts the bodies to others.


Since the field of gravitation has energy, and therefore mass, the bodies, radiating gravitons, lose certain mass and energy. As well, as it demonstrated by professor D. Ivanenko for the first time is possible to be considered that two gravitons when hitting, can form two particles, for example an electron and a positron, which as well, can become gravitons: But so that two gravitons originate during the shock two particles, or on the contrary, so that during the interaction of particles it increases the number of gravitons, they are necessary enormous energies that they are not reached including about cosmic rays; for that reason the probability of similar processes is very small. But the process of spontaneous irradiation of gravitons is much more probable.


Since each graviton takes with him a part of the mass of the elementary particle that has created it, it can, knowing the energy of gravitons, to also calculate the time during which each elementary particle is diminished at least to half. In other words the period of the half-life of the matter can be calculated, of its conversion in a field of gravitation. This period is equal to tens of thousands of million years.


It is very probable that the transformation of the matter in gravitons depends on several physical conditions and in individual of the density of medium and of "will temperature it of the elementary particles that compose the nucleus. By this temperature the physicists understand the reserve of energy of the nucleus. By the sight, being relatively low this temperature, the speed of conversion of the matter on gravitons must be smaller than in normal conditions, and if the body radiates less gravitons does habitually, it will interact less with the surrounding bodies and it will become less heavy. And, the other way around, if it radiates an elevated number of gravitons will become super heavy “(Theory on the Gravitation exposed by physicists M, Vasiliev, and K.Staniukovich in "The cosmos and your seven estates", Moscow. 1967).


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5 A SPEED GREATER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT

According to we saw, the modern conception on the gravitation defines it as a physical state of the field, of the matter. The number of location within the others is third of the field, according order: nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields. And seventh of the matter, according order: solid, liquid, gaseous, p1asma, nuclear field, electromagnetic field, and gravitational field [8]. The field of gravitation is a form of the matter but first of all is a form of the field. The existence of the field is the previous condition of the existence of the gravitational field


[8] Really, fourth of the field, according order: weak nuclear, strong nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields. And eighth of the matter, according order: solid, liquid, gaseous, p1asma, weak nuclear field, strong nuclear field, electromagnetic field, and gravitational field. Also, there is the Einstein-Bose condensation state of the matter.


The electromagnetic field is the immediate antecedent of the gravitational field of which in certain conditions of energy impoverishment it can be originated as well as in case of energy enrichment it can originate it.


The form of transformation of the electromagnetic field to gravitational is the one of which the two opposed phases of the electromagnetic field; photon-electromagnetic wave undergoes a process of displacement of its balance towards the quantification of the wave in smaller particles: the gravitons; the energy thus retained enriches, the wave that becomes gravitational.


The form of the transmutation of the gravitational field to electromagnetic field is the one of which the two opposed phases of the gravitational field, graviton-gravitational wave, undergo a process of displacement of their balance towards the quantification of the wave in greater particles, photons, the energy thus yielded impoverishes the wave that becomes electromagnetic [9]. These processes are determined by the undulatory aspect as soon as it is the dominant aspect in the field.


[9] It is paradoxical that the gravitational wave is weaker than the electromagnetic wave. But, also the energy anticipated for the graviton is lower than energy of photon. In relative terminus gravitation is more energetics that electromagnetism.


This way we discovered that the system photon-electromagnetic wave, electromagnetic field, has greater amount of energy quantified and smaller amount of scattered mass that the system graviton-gravitational wave, gravitational field.


What means this in speed terms?


It is known that the speed of corpuscle-wave in anyone of the states of the matter is directly proportional to amount of scattered mass (energy) and inversely proportional to amount of concentrated energy (mass) of the state: the mass is the passive aspect of the matter whereas the energy the active aspect. In function to greater energy and smaller the mass, greater is the speed of the system corpuscle-wave. Now, being the amount of greater energy and smaller the amount of mass of the system graviton-gravitational wave in relation to the amount of energy and mass of the system photon-electromagnetic wave is deduced a greater speed of graviton-gravitational wave in relation to speed of the photon-electromagnetic wave.


This is another discovery that we do: A speed greater exists in the nature than the speed of light, electromagnetic field; this is the speed of “the gravitational field".


Can we reach the same conclusion of another way?


"The existence of the matter has the form with a greater complication of the bonds, the forms of movement, and the structure of the material objects. But it does not include all the process of the existence but that is only a part hers. The complication processes unavoidably are replaced by others of disintegration, decomposition ".


This material movement in two-way traffic is regulated at every moment of its development by the unfolding degree in which are the two tendencies that govern the matter in movement: tendency of the transformation of the mass in energy on the opposed one, the matter happens in disintegration processes: The molecules are decomposed in atoms, these in elementary particles, these in photons, these in graviton, the gravitons in....


As the matter is disintegrated, its movement acquires rapidity. Thus, while the speed of molecules, in the gaseous state, is about 0,5 km by second. The elementary particles and mesons move at speeds greater than 24000 km by second and photons 299999 km by second. Therefore, the graviton will must to have a speed greater than the speed of light. Or it is perhaps that the mass of the graviton is greater in relation to mass of the photon? Or the law of the greater speed for the smallest particles is not valid for the graviton? Or such law does not exist. Evidence exists about of the greater speed of the system graviton-gravitational wave with relation to the photon-electromagnetic wave that also is it of our hypothesis about the greater dispersion of the mass and minor concentration of the energy of the gravitational field respect to electromagnetic field. This is the acceleration undergone by a luminous beam when crossing a intense gravitational field which force to Einstein to make depend the speed of light of the "force" of gravitation; done described with right reason by the physicist M Abraham [10] like less than the failure as the Special Relativity with its postulate of the constant speed of the light and we say is of Einstein’s theory of the gravitation.


[10] In General Relativity, the speed of the light in vacuum is depending of gravity (c ≈ c [1 - 2Gm/c2r]).  


Experimentally is well established that when interacting two states different of the matter, since they must be in different levels of energy, exist a flow of energy of highest to lowest until reaching its balance. The energy transferred to the state of lower level modifies the movement of the elements of its corpuscular-undulatory structure and this system undergoes an increase of speed. This is which happens when an electromagnetic field interacts with one gravitational field.


Is 316,200 Km. by second the speed of the gravitational field?


Each state of the matter is defined by properties and specific magnitudes. Each state has a corpuscle-undulatory structure that individualizes it without which it would let be what is, in addition, has an objective degree of differentiation with the other states.


The degree of objective differentiation is the magnitude of the state: amount of mass, energy, speed, etc. These amounts depend on others and its relation can be expressed by means of mathematical formulas. Thus, the energy of the corpuscular aspect is related to mass and speed of corpuscle according with the equation: Energy = mass * c2. Clearing the last term we can find out the speed of corpuscle, in our case, of the graviton for which it is not precise to know its mass and energy, data that have provided eminent Soviet physicists to us; clear this that is provisional and, consequently approximated. It is necessary to warn, in addition, that us it has not been possible, for sure to establish the density for which they calculated thinking that it is the one of the vacuum. Of equal way it is right to show that these data are from theoretical works on the time of disintegration of the graviton mass. According to such, probably, the mass of the graviton is 0,5 * 10 -65 grams and their energy 0,5 * 10 -45 ergs.


The result of our first ripple in the forbidden estates to which we tried to interpret the world, that is, the technician is to us flattering the speed that we found pure the graviton, hopefully in the vacuum, is greater than the speed of the light in same medium, this speed that we have found is 316200 km by second [11] . But, still our satisfaction when confirming it for the speed of propagation of the gravitational waves has been greater which, also, has been with the same value.

To our way to see, the equality between both speeds us this indicating the existence of an own speed for the gravitation in the same way as it exists for electromagnetism.


[11] According to measurements made by Tom Van Flandern (1998) the speed of gravity is not less than 20 billion c.


Are we in front of a new speed?


We think it because the slight ones of the matter are the same ones in anyone of their states and each one has its own magnitude without which it would let be what is as soon as the change of quality carries with law force escaping the magnitude of the old one. Our work is the one to justify before the reason the new speed whose arrival we waited for it with as much anxiety as Nietzche to its superman. It is not our intention to describe it, to say how it is but that it is of there, that when trying to fix its value we provisionally do it and without eagerness of which necessarily it is that. Being our so modest work we cannot ask the Sphinx for the Oracle that opens and allows seeing the future.


Is the speed of gravity field the last possible speed in the Universe?


At the moment it is known that the states of the field are not only the nuclear, electromagnetic and gravitational fields but that also are it created by the electron and the positron, meson and the others whose number is unforeseeable as soon as by each subparticula atomic a type of unique field can be expected. Of these fields as soon as one knows that they exist or to less is possible but not as they exist. Important of the recognition of their possibility of reality or existence is to establish of which the forms of the matter go beyond the gravitational field with which it is left the way laid to discover "higher speeds to speed of the field of gravitation and we saved our responsibility of the mystification of the speed of gravity like the last cosmic speed. Our affirmation implies the optimism of the man of the present century pawned on going to most distant stars, opposite to pessimism of the man of the century to pass the one that condemned this company using the speed of light as it limits of all human speed and future aspiration to cross the Universe, Is that "the man does not create problems that cannot solve".


Does the existence of increasing speeds bring like consequence the remote action defended by the classic physics?


Everything in the Universe exists united to its opposite one and the character of the speed is contradictory when the speed is referred the development of the matter can be, in a certain sense, increase or, in another sense, decrease; although the speed referred to each state of the matter is one and only one, in general terms. This is the reason because a phenomenon or a group of phenomenon cannot influence another or others, but through speeds finite, and determined to their material forms being impossible "the action to distance". 


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AUTHOR´ WORKS


1. Proposed for the realization of a experiment that serve to measure the velocity of propagation of the gravitation according tides, that with base in considering to static gravitational field composed of virtual gravitons, it proposes to make an experiment using the tides to measure the speed of propagation of this field. This work was published in 1993.

2. The Gravity, that deals with on the theoretical foundations about the superluminals speeds and the estimation a formulae to measure the speed of gravity with base in position astronomy. This work written originally in 1995 and reviewed in 1996, is precursory of the work of Tom Van Flandern. In this work it establishes that the speed of the gravity, within the Solar System, tends to infinite, with base in the analysis of the found equation.

3. The experiments indicate that the speed of gravity is minimum 20 billion times c, that treat on the experiments of Doctor Tom Van Flandern by means of which it establishes the previous speed for the gravity. This work was published in February of 2001.

4. Superluminal speeds, technology gain assisted, group of Princenton, which it treats on the experiment in which it takes a laser beams at the speed of group of 310c, in the 2000. This work was published in October of 2001.

5. The law of the inertia of the energy and the speed of gravity. October, 2004. In this work, with base in the theories of the relativity and quantum, the author formulates the law of inertia for particles of electromagnetic and gravity fields and he explains that speed of gravity is greater than c.

6. Speed of gravity, October, 2005. In this work, the author estimates that speed of gravity is greater than 2*1010c and less than 2,2222*1010c.

7. Gravitational waves in 5D, October, 2006. In this work, the author establishes that gravitational waves propagate in 5 dimensions and not in 4 dimensions, because the gravitational waves are perturbations of spacetime itself.

8. Gravity is a fundamental force, 2006. According to author General Relativity badly uses equivalence between inertial and gravitational masses for to transform real gravity force in geometric force.

 

ANTECEDENTS

 

Between 1969-1970, the author formulates the existence in the nature of speeds greater than c, in four articles, published in the newspaper "El Siglo". The originals are here.

 

 

 

In 1991-1993, the author proposed the accomplishment of several conducive experiments to the measurement of the speed of the gravity from the static gravitational field, under the assumption that this field this constituted by virtual gravitons. These experiments were conceived from the perspective of the Astrophysics that studies the constitution and evolution of the celestial objects in special of the Sun and, later, of the Astronomical Geography, which it describes some phenomena which they happen in the Earth and they are related to the stars, referring me to most typical as they are the eclipses and the tides. The documents that credit these pioneering works of the author, in the 1990 principles, can be seen here.


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