TECHNOLOGY GAIN ASSISTED
ALFONSO LEON GUILLEN GOMEZ
BOGOTA, COLOMBIA, OCTUBRE DE 2001
BOGOTA, COLOMBIA, OCTOBER OF 2001
The express author its gratitude to professor doctor Aephraim M. Steinberg, of the Department of Physics of the University of Toronto, Canada, who with its fundamental explanations, facts the 9 October of 2001, contributes to scientific severity in the correct interpretation, that is done in this work, since the point of view of the laws that govern the phenomena optics, of the experiment superluminal carried out in Princeton. Also, express its gratitude to professor doctor Helmut Rechenberg of the Institute for the Physical one Max Planck of Munich, Germany, who fixed the reach, of this experiment, with relation to the theory of the Relativity of Albert Einstein and defines the experimental conditions with respect to the superluminal velocities, in which would be required of a new physical theory, concepts formulated September 26, 2000.
INDICATE OF MATTERS
"The problem of the knowledge...., it requires a reinterpretation ...and was not possible this new conception of the knowledge inside the framework of the Physical of Newton."
Between 1969 and 1970, against the theory of the Relativity of Einstein, I exposed the theory of the existence of speeds in the Universe greater that C, one of which would be the speed of gravitation (1), basing on the quantum theory of Andrei Saharov on the gravity, that he proposed, in 1967.
thirty years, nowadays, is accepted that "in the nature certainly velocities
exist greater that speed of the light, for example, connected with the velocity
of phase of the electromagnetic waves in solids", as the doctor Helmut
Rechenberg, of the Institute for the Physical Max Planck, in
other hand, during the passed nineties, among others, the scientists have
developed two basic types of technologies of superluminal velocities (2). The
oldest one, the technology of the evanescent waves, known as technology tunnel,
created, in 1992, by the team of the doctor Gunter Nimtz, in Colony, Germany,
where 30C has been reached. And the technology Gain Assisted produced, in the
2000, by the team of Lijun Wang, Alexander Kuzmich and Arthur Dogariu, in
Nevertheless, by the
previous physical facts of the existence in the nature of superluminal
velocities and of the technologies for to produce superluminal velocities yet
cannot be disputed crucially to Einstein. To respect Rechenberg says: "The
pertinent question for the Relativity of Einstein is if any information with
those waves can be transported. The experiment realized in
In 1998, the mathematician and astronomer, doctor Tom Van Flandern, investigator of the University of Maryland, United States, questioned seriously to Einstein, utilizing its own theory of the Relativity to show as, with its geometric conception of the gravity, violates the principle of causality, which conducted, to this investigator, has to adopt the explanation that the gravity is a different form of radiation to electromagnetism.
(1) This theory was published in the Sunday Weekly of “El Siglo”, in four articles.
(2) It is understood for luminal the velocity C.
(3) Gunter Nimtz transmitted the 40 symphony of Mozart to 4.7C, but it does not be worth this as information or sign.
That is to say, Tom contextualizes gravitation inside the quantum phenomenon. Since this perspective, Van Flandern applied the techniques used for the electromagnetic field, and it reckoned that the velocity of the gravity is minimum 20 thousand million C (4). This result is consistent with the deduction carried out by the author, in 1970, and then ratified in its proposals of measurement of the gravity (5), mainly formulated in 1993, 1995 and 1996.
ends of 2000, the necessary infrastructure to measure experimentally the
velocity of the gravity, remained established for the four large projects that
in the world have that purpose, during the next five-year period. These they are
If it is confirmed that the velocity of the gravity surpasses C, as Rechenberg says: "would be required of a different theory from the Relativity of Einstein". Tom Van Flandern proposes to take up again the theory of the Relativity of Lorentz, that if it permits the existence of velocities greater that C.
In the present work the author presents the experiment of Princeton, that constitutes a true feat of the human ingenuity to have managed to carry the velocity of group of the electromagnetic wave to 310C, without loss of energy he be produced.
leader of the team, of the NEC Research Institute Physical Science, that he
carried out the experiment is the physicist and astronomer Lijun Wang Ph.D., of
This work, in the first to fourth chapters, develops some of the themes worked by Wang, necessary for the comprehension of the technology Gain Assisted. And in the fifth chapter the superluminal experiment is presented.
(4) The author, in February of 2001, published the work: "The experiments indicate that the velocity of the gravity is like minimum 20 thousand million times C", where presents the theory of Tom Van Flandern.
(5) In the works of the author:
- Proposed for the execution of an experiment that serves to measure the velocity of propagation of the gravitation. 1993.
- Proposed to measure the velocity of the gravity based on the Astronomy of Position. 1995.
- The Gravity. 1996.
The reality is composed by the phenomena of the substance and the field. So much the substance as the field possesses a double behavior of wave (7) and particle. That is to say, the substance and the field possess a double nature, in their demonstration undulatory is continuous, and, in their quantum demonstration is discontinuous.
The fundamental difference is that the substance possesses atomic composition, while, the field is composed for packets of energy. Its essential difference is that the field is declared mainly as wave, while the substance as particle.
According to the quantum theory the energy, stored in the field, is emitted or absorbed in discrete quantities or packages of energy that behave in many situations as the particles of the substance, for example, in the effect photoelectric. In turn, the electron and other particles and subparticles components of the substance possess properties that only can be explained in the terms of the properties of the movement of a wave as, for example, to produce diffraction. Or in the case of the electron that the lengths of its orbits, in around to nucleus, are exactly lengths of wave. Besides, that the electrons itself are not declared like points but behave spreaded on its orbit entire.
The classical theory, of where originates the identification of the material reality with the phenomenon of the substance, ignored that the substance possesses the character of wave and the field that of quanta (8).
Nowadays we have the certainty that substance - field are the result of the cooling off that occurred in the Universe thirty-two minutes after the Big - Bang, moment in which the atomic nucleus synthesis was produced and the rise of the substance organized from atoms. The Universe was originated in the field; at the moment same of the Big - Bang only existed energy (9) and during the interim in which the temperature went minimum ten for ten high to the thirty-two degrees Kelvin only existed field (10).
Of such way, in the chapters 1 and 2, we will refer to the bases of the two fundamental physical phenomena of the nature that are, also the base of the technology of the laser:
- The constituent structure atoms of the substance.
- The electromagnetic wave form of the energy in which the quantum character is declared of is.
In the chapter 3 it will treat the interaction among the atom and the electromagnetic wave and its application to the production of the laser, inside whose numerous uses is the one that is the base the present technologies of velocities superluminal.
Therefore, this part 1 is oriented to the comprehension of the laser, technology that nevertheless to originate since nearby half century is maintained of tip.
(7) The waves of the substance are called waves of the matter and went discovered by Broglie.
(8) The theory of the physical classic and even Einstein understand the matter composed by atoms or, to less, by particles or atomic subparticles. The author considers the matter c composed so much by the substance as by the field.
(9) Energy in such degree of density that we perceived with analogous physical reality to that of the substance in liquid state.
(10) The author has the theory that the constant universal physics it are not in a strict sense and that evolve in function to the changes of temperature occurred during the genesis and the evolution that is occurring in the Universe. In this manner, the velocity C of the photon has not had to ways the value that was measured during the experiments carried out in the century 19. This velocity in the instant of apparition of the electromagnetism, that is to say, when its differentiation was produced with regarding the supergravity, should be several times C. In this respect the physical American Steve Carlip thinks that the constant change with the time and the space. And a group of scientists, in the University of New South Wales in Australia, detected, in 1999, that the constant one of the fine structure has changed in the time, ratified by astronomers in the National Radio Astronomy, Institute Max Plank, University of Red, Institute Space Telescope Science, Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy, Institute Kapteyn Research, Onsala Space Observatory and Harvard Smithsonian.
The atom, seen since the perspective that constitutes the natural support for the generation of the laser, interests like not nuclear energy production mechanism, in its processes of absorption and electromagnetic emission of radiation, especially in the level of the fine structures and hyperfine of the atom.
Therefore, it is a matter of studying the atom fundamentally in the level of its layers of electrons and energy interactions, that is to say, of the step of electrons among layers, of the interaction of the responsible, with himself same electron of the fine structure, and of the interaction of the electron with the nucleus, responsible of the structure hyperfine. Besides, to study the energy interaction of the atom with its environment, of where originates the energy that absorbs and where is going to stop the energy that emits.
The theory that treats about the energy phenomenon is the quantum theory, which seen applied to the physics of the atom and of the electromagnetism, conceived in its nature dual of wave – particle and subjects to principle of uncertainty.
In this chapter the quantum theory of the atom is presented and its energy for the determination of the structures and processes, that intervene in the production of the laser.
The atom is a composed structure by a nucleus and electrons that are transferred in around nucleus, inside orbital (11). According to some authors, the electrons and components of the nucleus possess movement of rotation. Additionally, the electrons possess the movement in transit among the orbital of the atom. The evolution of the atom is determined by its interaction with the field (12), mainly, the electromagnetic field that is the responsible one for the different movements that possess the electrons and can be of the movement of "rotation" of the components of the nucleus. The ligature of the components and subcomponents of the nucleus is proper of strong field and the process of disintegration of the nuclei of the radioactive atoms caused by the weak field.
In the elaboration of the present theory on the atom three theories concur: the classic, that of Bohr and the quantum (13).
The step from one to another has been consequence of the successive experimental discoveries on the structure and the behavior of the atom, and the electromagnetism that the theory of shift could not explain.
The classical conception contributed the model of the composed atom by electrons and nucleus (14), among which exercises an electric force attraction, that if the electrons are pushed toward the nucleus emit electromagnetic energy and that if are pushed toward the outside absorb electromagnetic energy.
In turn, the theory on the atom of Bohr added, for the electrons in the atoms, the states of energy quantized according to orbital. Those constitute the roads through which the electrons are transferred around the nucleus.
The present quantum conception of the atom is bases on them advanced following:
- The electrons and muons (15) are transferred (16) respect to nucleus inside certain orbital, associates with discrete states of energy (17).
These orbital they can be described by means of an equation of wave, known as equation of wave of Schrodinger (SWE) (18).
- The changes of the electron or muon among orbital are accompanied by the absorption or emission of packets of electromagnetic energy.
- The electromagnetic energy, that radiates or absorbs the atom, is composed by discrete packages of energy called photons. Therefore, the electromagnetic energy is of discrete nature. That is to say, the electromagnetic energy changes according quanta of energy (19).
- The electrons and the components of the nucleus of the atom: neutrons, protons and other subparticles, as well as the photon have properties of wave (20).
- All it components (21) of the atom and the photon possess spin, which for some authors is the movement of turn of a particle or of the photon oriented in a specific direction and, for other authors, is the simple orientation of the particle in a direction of the space. The disagreement situates in which according to the quantum theory these particles do not possess axis, due to its behavior undulatory.
Nevertheless, for the explanation of its magnetic property is necessary to consider them with a certain movement of turn, to though, not in the sense of rotation.
- Two or more electrons or muons cannot exist in the same state (22) of energy or orbital.
- The interim inside which a determined state of energy can exist and the energy of the state cannot be known simultaneously (23).
- They can be determined the length of wave, energy and amplitude, but not where the electron is found, because a wave extends in the space, on all its directions.
- By means of the equation of Schrodinger can be calculated the amplitude of the wave of an electron in various points of the space.
- Several expressions are possible for the amplitude of a wave that satisfies the equation of Schrodinger. Due to which only the probability can be determined to find an electron in a region given of the space.
- The relativistic effects (24) and magnetic of the electron cause the presence of a fine division of the energy of the orbital.
- The effect of the interaction among the magnetism of the electron and that of the nucleus produce the presence of a hyperfine subdivision of the energy inside the fine division of the orbital.
The description that receives the theory of quantum, as soon as refers to that the energy is quantize, in terms of the theory of the atom originates of Bohr and in the referring to quanta to its discoverer Planck.
(11) As opposed to the orbits that describe the planets in around to Sun the electrons move in clouds around the nucleus.
(12)Five known forms of the field exist. These are: Electromagnetic, weak, strong, gravitation and one of recent discovery.
(13) The quantum mechanics was
developed to describe the movement of the particles and subparticles atomic
confined in micro spaces. The mechanics of
(14) The nuclei are formed by neutrons and protons.
(15) The muons are electrons that associates with two appear neutrinos. Its mass is 207 times that of the electron.
(16) This movement is known in the conception of Bohr as the orbit of the similar electron to that of a planet around a star as the Sun. In the present theory, the movement of translation of the electron is of form of cloud.
(17) Theory of Bohr about the atom of hydrogen.
(18) SWE is an equation of probability. SWE this defined in agreement to principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg, that is to say, p ³ H/i, where p = uncertainty in moment, i = uncertainty in position, and h = constant of Planck.
(19) A quanta is n times the constant one of Planck. This constant one is equal to 6.62620 for 10 to the less 34 Js.
(20) Principle of Broglie.
(21) Also, the protons and neutrons, inside the nucleus, possess spin. And likewise, have it the quarks and sub quarks components and subcomponents of the hadrons or heavy particles, inside which are the proton and the neutron.
(22) Principle of exclusion of Pauli.
(23) Principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg.
(24) According to Sommerfeld, such effect is that of the change of the mass of the electron with its velocity.
The particles and subparticles components of the atom possess:
- Electric Load which is declared like field electric (25).
- Moment of the dipole magnetic (26) that is declared like magnetic field.
- Moment of the quantity of movement of the particle or subparticle (27) that hypothetically is declared like field of the spin.
Each field, of the previous, interacts with each another.
The spin of the particles and subparticles, components of the atom, is oriented according to two values: up or down, for any spatial direction.
The photon, quanta of the electromagnetic field, lacks electric load and lacks of moment of the dipole magnetic. But, the photon possesses spin whose axis is to ways parallel to the spatial direction of its movement, to though, in the sense behind or ahead. These two values correspond to the photons of left hand and right hand.
(25) A charges electric creates a static electric field that is manifested, in presence another load, as transfer for the time being among both loads, the ones that are attracted or repel. This transfer for the time being is through virtual photons that are exchanged among the loads, and directly cannot be detected for being its period of decay coincident with the interim of uncertainty.
(26) With two poles, positive and negative, separated by a right-wing tiny distance. Its behavior is that of two infinitesimals charges electric of opposite signs united and confined inside a micro space indivisible.
(27) All the particles and subparticles atomic possess spin .Also; the quantum of the different existing fields possess spin. The spin is one of the characteristics of the elements constituents of the matter.
An electric load in absence
of another load (28) presents its electric field coinciding with its electric
potential field. This it is the
(28) An electric charge only presents electric field when is in the presence of another electric charge.
The entities, with especially complex, atomic structure, with relation to the conformation of their total energy, are the molecules since possess the following mechanical sources of energy:
- Energy kinetic rotational that results of the rotation of the molecule with respect to its own axis.
- Energy kinetic vibrational caused by the vibration of the nucleus with respect to its position of equilibrium.
- Potential energy that is the energy of the position, in the space, of its electrons inside the orbital.
- Energy kinetic translative which is generated for the exchange of energy due to the collisions among molecules.
The quantitative relation, among these types of energy of the molecules, is:
Potential energy > vibrational > translative > rotational
The change in the rotational energy is accompanied by a transition vibrational. Often this is the source of spectral bands.
The collisions can influence strongly in the rotational level, weakly in the level vibrational and scattering in all the potential level.
The photons transport a moment equal to h / l, That is to say, constant of Planck / length of wave. This moment is manifested for the force that is exercised for the photons on the atoms.
A photon when is absorbed by an atom an angular moment gives it + or - (29).
During the cycles of emission and spontaneous absorption (30) the photon, on the average in each cycle, transfers a moment to atom equal to moment of the photon times the rat of dissemination.
While all the photons absorbed they spread in a same direction the photons emitted, in a spontaneous way, are it isotropic, with a rat on the order of 100 million photons by second.
(29) The sign depends on the orientation, down (-) or up (+), of the spin.
(30) Also, the cycle emission exists - absorption stimulated, by means of the action of the laser on the atoms.
The model of the quantum mechanics describes the properties of each orbital one inside an atom, by means of three symbols and one secondary to determine the spin of an electron, inside a suborbital. Of such way, that the assembly, of those four symbols, characterizes an electron and its state in an atom. These symbols, called quantum numbers, are:
The first quantum symbol is:
N = 1, 2, 3... This is the main quantum number and describes the size and energy of an orbital one (31). The orbital one n = 1 corresponds to state of lower energy of an atom. An orbital one will have greater energy as much as greater is its value n.
The electronic transition (32) occurs when an electron moves among orbital with values n different.
So that an electron passes of n = 1 to n>1 or, in general, it passes to any n final > N initial is required that the atom absorb the energy of a photon equal to the difference of energy among n final and n initial. In the contrary case, when an electron passes to n = 1 or initial from n < N final the atom emits a photon with an energy equal to the difference of energy among the orbital n initial and n final. These relations are expressed in the following equation:
Final energy - initial Energy (33) = h x C / l
An atom is found in state discharged when its electrons occupy orbital of most minimum energy. And the atom is excited when at least one of its electrons occupies an orbital one since which can decay to another orbital one of smaller energy.
The second quantum symbol is:
L = s, p, d, f... This called number Azimuthal or subsidiary describes the form of each one of the suborbital belonging to an orbital one. That is to say, an orbital one can have more than one cloud of probability, where can be found the electrons. All those clouds have nearby the level of energy of the minimum orbital one, being for s.
The third quantum symbol is:
ML = -l, -l+1 ... l this is the magnetic quantum number that defines the orientation of a suborbital in the space. Ex pulse changes in the orientation in the space of the clouds of probability, where can be found the electrons. This is a whole number.
The fourth quantum symbol is:
Ms = up (+½), under (-½) this value determines the up the orientation or below the axis of the spin of the electron, inside a cloud of probability, in a specific direction of the continuous spatial one 3-D (34).
The quantum number n determines the values of the number l, since it can take n different values, numbered since 0 to n-1, according to the conventions l=0=s, l=1=p, l=2=d, etc. Likewise l determines the values that can take mL, the ones that are entire, with increments ±1, among –l and + l, that is to say, 2l+1 values.
L defines the form of a cloud, together with n, that defines its size and mL that defines its orientation.
Two electrons cannot have, in the same atom, the four numbers quantum equals, proper of principle of exclusion of Pauli.
The fact that electron can
exist multiple orbital with the same number n causes those levels of equal
energy they exist. These levels are known as layers and are represented for the
letters K, L, M,
The layers K, L, M cover the first 18 elements of the periodic board.
In the board 1 a plan of the structure of the orbital is presented.
Level Orbital possible most maximum Number of electrons
N l mL ms (35) In the suborbital In the orbital
The suborbital s, p, d, f, etc. inside each orbital one have very next energies, due to which is considered them of equal energy, nevertheless, the energy grows among s and f.
For the value of l=0=s a cloud exists only, for l=1=p 3 forms of clouds exist, for l=2=d 5 forms of clouds exist, for l=3=e 7 forms of clouds exist, etc. That is to say, for l exists 2l+1 forms of clouds. A cloud can contain to 2 electrons, one with the axis of its spin up and the other downward.
The total number of electrons that can have an orbital one is 2(2l+1)
An orbital one, l, can present different alternatives of energy, for example, in the isotope 87, of the atom of Rubidium, the division of the orbital one p in the sub level of energy j=1/2 and j=3/2 pertaining to subdivisions of very small energy of the fine structure of the orbital. A subsequent division of the energy of the fine structure of the orbital one is produced by its subdivision in the values F, this subdivision corresponds to the structure hyperfine of an orbital one.
The divisions of the fine structures and hyperfine do not add electrons storage capacity inside an orbital one, that continues determined by the four quantum number n, l, mL and ms. But, on the other hand enables a greater energy states number for the electrons that occupy the suborbital.
(31) For the atom of hydrogen the energy of a level with quantum number n equal to –R hC / n. R is the constant one of Ryberg, equal to 1.092 x 10 cm.
(32) Also, transition of the electron exists when passes among the sub levels of energy of a same orbital one, to though, are transition with very small difference of energy.
(33) In the atom of hydrogen, the difference of energy among n = 2 and n = 1 is of 1 electro volt.
(34) 3-D defines three dimensions, that are represented for x, and, z.
(35) Two orientations exist: up (high energy) and down (low energy) of the spin of the electron.
In the atom various angular moments exist (36) due to the movements of their particles components. Such angular moments are for the electron, as much that of their orbital movement as that of their spin. And, in the atoms magnetically actives exist the angular moment of the nucleus. These angular moments generate magnetic moments that interact with each another.
In the nucleus, the protons and neutrons have each one angular moment due to their respective one spin. The moments, of these particles, generate the total moment of the nucleus, called I.
If the number of protons is pair and that of neutrons is pair then the angular moment total of the nucleus is zero. But, if the number of the protons is unequal or is it that of the neutrons then the nucleus has angular moment and the atom is active magnetically.
The angular moment total of the nucleus, of these active atoms (37), is connected in the magnetic property of the nucleus, known as the magnetic moment of the nucleus.
The spin of each proton or neutron of the nucleus, acts like a magnetic bar dipolar(38), which produces a tiny magnetic field (39), That combines with the magnetic field of each another and form the magnetic field total of the nucleus.
The reason among the magnetic, angular, and total moments, of the nucleus is the radio giromagnetic of the nucleus that is specific of each magnetically active nucleus.
The electrons (40) have orbital angular moment by its translation around the nucleus and, additionally, angular moment of its spin. These angular moments are connected in the magnetic properties (41) of the electron.
The total magnetic moments of the nucleus and of the electron is connected at the moment magnetic total of the atom.
In general, the magnetic moments of the particles components of the atom are due to the movements, of translation or turn, of electric charges (42). The difference among the intensity of these magnetic moments is that of its different radio giromagnetic (43).
(36) An angular moment is the vector radio times velocity times mass that has magnitude and direction.
(37) The atomic nuclei are assets magnetically when have angular moment total. The nuclei of the hydrogen, coal, fluorine, match, and sodium are active magnetically.
(38) With South and North poles.
(39) Also, it has magnitude and direction oriented equal as the angular moment.
(40) Also, the muons for the atoms muonics.
(41) The electron and muons behave as tiny magnetic dipolar bars the same as the protons and neutrons, due to its spin. Besides, for the electrons and muons the effect of its orbital movement exists.
(42) Negative of the electron and muon. Positive of the proton. The neutron, that is a proton connected to an electron, also, presents electric property when it rotates.
(43) According to the electrodynamics quantum the giromagnetic radios, of the magnetic moments, are: 1 for the orbital one and 2.0023 for the spin of the electron.
The magnetic interaction of the with himself same electron, that is to say, among the orbital magnetic moments and of the spin of the electron, gives rise to the fine division of the energy of the suborbital of the atoms. This fine division is observable by means of spectroscopy of highest resolution.
Such interaction gives rise to a magnetic moment total of the electron, in each one of the suborbital that is the combination vectorial, L-S joint call, of the magnetic moments (44) orbital and of the spin of the electron (45). The magnetic moment total of the electron, inside a suborbital, is called J.
The difference of energy among two adjacent levels of energy of the fine structure is, approximately, a millionth splits of the difference of energy that exists among two quantum numbers n adjacent.
All the atoms possess the fine structure that, according to the quantum structure of the atom, the quantum number is represented by means of j, used to define each sublevel of energy, inside a suborbital.
This number j corresponds to total magnetic moment J of the electron, and is obtained adding the quantum number l, of the respective one suborbital, and ms of the spin of the electron that intervenes in the generation of the magnetic moment J in question.
For example, the effect of the fine structure in the isotope 87, of the atom of Rubidium (46), divides its quantum number 5, suborbital p, in the sub levels of energy: 5 p 1/2 and 5 p 3/2.
If an atom does not present structure hyperfine the third quantum number mL, defines, inside each sublevel of energy, of the fine structure, its orientation in the 3-D.
(44) The orbital moments and of the spin are anti parallels, quantized and, to one, is able at the same time to be determined its magnitude and its component z, of the 3-D.
(45) The magnetic moment is equal to inverse additive of the angular moment times the radio giromagnetic times the magneton of Bohr divided among the constant one of Planck. The magneton is the unit to measure the intensity of the magnetic field equal to 9,274 for 10 to the less 24 amperemetres.
(46) The atom of Rubidium presents the isotopes 85 and 87.
The inherent force of the associated electromagnetic force of the electron is characterized by the value of a parameter called the constant one of the fine structure of the atom. Which it is denoted for a and equal to:
Charge of the high electron to the 2 / h x C
The value of a it determines the tight thing that are the atoms, inside a substantial structure, and the electromagnetic lengths of waves that are able the atoms to emit.
The interaction, among the magnetic moments total of the electron and of the nucleus, produces the division superfine of the fine structure that is defined by means of the quantum symbol F, which numbered the sub levels of energy, inside each suborbital. The number of sub levels of energy determines them the magnetic moment total of the suborbital. Each sublevel at the same time can present a specific number of orientations that is defined by the third quantum number mL. When the atom has only fine structure mL numbered the different orientation of each one of the suborbital belonging to this structure.
The magnetic field total of the electron is connected to total moment of the nucleus and orients the spin of the nucleus, in a specific direction in the 3-D. This joint is called J-I and the angular moment resultant total F, which is quantized and can take values J + I, J+I-1 ... ,, J-I.
Thus can exist (2J+1) or (2I+1) hyperfine levels of energy, depending if J>I or I>J.
The difference of energy among two adjacent levels of the structure hyperfine is, approximately, a thousandth (47) part of the difference of energy that exists among consecutive levels of the fine structure.
Only the atoms, with magnetic active nuclei, possess the structure hyperfine that, according to the quantum structure of the atom, is represented for the sub levels of energy F, that specify the divisions of the quantum number of the magnetic moment, mL, inside the structure hyperfine. The number of sub levels of energy of the structure hyperfine, is defined by F, and is equal to the sum of j + I. The value of I depends on the spin of the nucleus and is a multiple of ½, among 0 and 15/2. For example, in the isotope 87 of the atom of Rubidium in the orbital 5 p3/2, presents a division hyperfine in the sub levels of energy F=0,1,2,3. Each sublevel of energy F, at the same time, presents mL orientation in the space.
(47) The magnetic moment of the nucleus it differentiates of the magnetic moment of the electron in the radio giromagnetic and in the magneton, call nuclear magneton. The reason among the Bohr magneton and the nuclear magneton is 1/1836, that is to say, the reason among the masses of the electron and the proton.
When the atoms are found under the effect of a weak external magnetic field the division of the energy of the fine structure is done stronger, equal happens with the subdivision of the energy of the structure hyperfine. This effect is known like Zeeman, and is used in diverse atomic experiments of physics, to stimulate these structures and thus to manipulate the quantum states of the atoms.
The energy Hamiltonian of an electron inside an orbital one, defined by the quantum number n, is to most the same one, but, with light variations in its potential energies and kinetic as a result of its traffic inside the own divisions of the orbital one in the fine structures, with differences of barely millionth split, and hyperfine, with differences of only thousand millionth split.
The step of the electron among two levels of energy produces electromagnetic radiation, provided that the even electron of a level of greater potential energy to another smaller one. Also, the step of the electron inside the sub levels of energy of the fine structure or of the hyperfine structure.
If, on the contrary, the electron goes of a level or sublevel of smaller potential energy to another greater one should take the energy of a photon incident, inside the rank of the difference of energy among the final and initial potentials or for the transition, inside the structure hyperfine, above the rank of the difference of energy among the final and initial potentials of the sub levels of that structure.
Nevertheless, that the electron can do step among any of the possible combinations of traffic, inside the different levels and sub levels of energy, only certain transition produce effects detectable. For example, in the isotope 87, of the atom of Rubidium the transition hyperfine 5 p3/2 3 to 5 s1/2 2 produces electromagnetic radiation detectable. Not thus, the transition 5 p3/2 p1/2 2.
The transition of the electrons can occur among states of orbital of different quantum number or of the interior of a same orbital one.
These transition can be carried out in the sense in which an electron passes from a state inside an orbital more nearby of the nucleus to another more distant one or in the contrary sense in which an electron passes from a state inside an orbital more distant of the nucleus to another more nearby one. In every case, the difference of energy among the state of origin of the electron and the final state, it which passes is the factor that determines, in the process of emission, the length of the wave that is radiated. And in a process of absorption the energy of the photon incident on the atom, that is consumed.
Of such way, what occurs essentially in an electronic transition is the electromagnetic exchange of energy (48) in potential.
The potential energy diminishes in the process of emission or enlarges during the process of absorption.
The transition of the electron among different orbital can be among the most common:
- Lyman, since any orbital one with n>1 to orbital n = 1
- Balmer, since any orbital one with n>2 to orbital n = 2
- Paschen, since any orbital one with n>3 to orbital n = 3
All the transition of the electron that occurs in the process of emission generates waves of the same nature of different electromagnetic types of waves that differ only in length and frequency. The length waves change among hundreds of meters, of the waves of radio, to next to the length of the nucleus of an atom, of the X-rays.
The possible number of layers and orbital for a specific type of atom is independent of the number of its electrons. Thus the atom of hydrogen, with its only electron, can produce or to absorb electromagnetic radiation of different types.
In the Board 2 a guide about the existing association among the electronic transition is presented and the electromagnetic radiation.
Transition Type radiation type
Step of an external electron to an orbital internal one
Step of an electron inside the orbital external or inside the orbital internal
Near the infrared one
Step of an electron inside the orbital most external or molecular Vibration
Step of an electron inside the fine structure*
Waves of radio
Step of an electron inside the structure hyperfine*
* For levels of energy of the atom affected by a weak external magnetic field.
(48) The author observes that in the process of emission the decrease of the potential energy of the electron directly reappears like energy kinetic of the electromagnetism, well be considered like quantum entity (photon), or as entity undulatory (wave). The electron like photon possesses energy kinetic due to the velocity of its curvilinear movement. The electron like wave possesses energy kinetic due to its frequency or velocity of the oscillation. Of there that tell that the energy of the photon is that of its movement and that is directly proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. In these terms, the electromagnetic energy is essentially ¡energy kinetic¡.
They are transition hyperfine that give rise to radio waves emission. Thus the transition D1 corresponds to a difference of energy that aforesaid in frequency corresponds to lengths of wave on the order of the 794.7 nanometers (49) and, in turn, the transition D2 to the wave length frequencies by the side of the 780.7 nanometers.
For the isotope 87, of the atom of Rubidium, the transition D1 produces radiation detectable when occurs for the step of an electron among, for example:
Of 5 p1/2 1 to 5 s1/2 1
Of 5 p1/2 s1/2 1
Of 5 p1/2 1 to 5 s1/2 2
Of 5 p1/2 s1/2 2
For the isotope 87, of the atom of Rubidium, the transition D2 produces radiation detectable when occurs for the step of an electron among, for example:
Of 5 p3/2 0 to 5 s1/2 1
Of 5 p3/2 1 to 5 s1/2 1
Of 5 p3/2 1 to 5 s1/2 2
As it can be observed the previous states, that can generate the transition D1 or D2, represent so next energies that the subdivision hyperfine does not play here no role, as soon as produce a significant difference of energy in the wave radiated. But, said subdivision hyperfine is essential so that processes of absorption - emission can occur not resonant and they can be manipulated the electrons placing them, inside a determined quantum state of an atomic population, base of the technique of optic pump, that is carries out by means of applications of the laser.
(49) Nano is 1 for 10 to the less 9 that is to say, a thousandth of a millionth. On the other hand, is keep in mind that the difference of energy is equal to hC / l , Therefore, not to interpret the frequencies D1,D2 as the lengths of the wave radiated when such transition occur.
Though with it is the atom the base of the production of the laser and this the base for the achievement of velocities superluminales, is also certain that, is the electromagnetic wave the one that is employed to produce them, accelerating its velocity, by means of effects created with the laser, above the speed that has in the vacuum.
The electromagnetic wave is together with the gravity, to though, a great deal best-known, that this two phenomena of the field whose nature the science has not achieved fully to establish. The great difficulty that covers the full comprehension of the electromagnetic wave situates in if is or not the vibration of a middle. This last idea has been reintroduced with the quantum theory that presents the vacuum full of free fields (50), being the vacuum the middle in which the electromagnetic wave is originated and through which spreads.
Here the electromagnetic phenomenon is studied not know that great problem. The hypothesis is assumed that the electromagnetic wave is the vibration of the connection among the magnetic and electric fields, induced by the vibration of an electric charge in the vacuum. Such fields the charge with its movement creates them of translation and if, additionally, the charge oscillates induces the generation of the electromagnetic wave in which spreads in all the directions, in the space in which the electromagnetic field is expanded, being spread in the vacuum, as soon as the electromagnetism full the vacuum, to the limits of the continuous 4-D (51) in which comes to reach depending on its intensity, that is to say, Of flux of energy by a point of the space in a unit of time.
The present superluminal technologies, take advantage of the behavior of the relative electromagnetic wave to effect of the refraction, that consists of the changes of frequency and of the vector of the velocity of the wave when passes from a middle to another.
Of such way, in this chapter, since the quantum theory, develops the theme relating to the electromagnetic wave, orienting it to its application in the achievement of superluminal velocities.
(50) And the fields constituted for quanta of energy. With these bases the author formulates electromagnetic wave considering it like the disruption of a structure of energy, that would be the own electromagnetic energy, compound by photons.
(51) Continuous x, and, z, t
A wave (52), in general, is the propagation of a disruption, caused by an external agent, in the structure of an entity, proper to change in the natural state of movement of its elements constituents, beyond the pattern of movement, that is own of the structure of the entity.
The propagation of the disruption occurs through the entity and is able that also of its environment. Therefore, the waves as phenomenon of propagation of the structural disruption of middle transport energy (53). But, the present theory on the electromagnetic waves considers them empty, that is to say, as they would not be exactly the structural disruption of a middle they would not transport energy, another thing is if the vacuum, as it maintains the quantum theory this full one of fields, then they should transport energy. In every case, the demonstrations of the electromagnetic waves are analogous to those of the waves that transport energy.
In the composed entities by atomic structures (54) the waves, mechanical calls waves, are generated for the alteration of the movement of their particles, according to the movement of these, inside the own pattern of their structure.
Based on the theory kinetic of the matter, the particles components of the structure of the substantial entities are animated of constant movement, and its velocity is directly proportional to the temperature of the entity, to though, in every instant conserving the company of the entity, doing that appears to ways equal. Nevertheless, in the vibrations can occur anomalies (55), horizontal, and vertical or in any direction of their molecules, atoms or ions constituents, that is transmitted in all the directions of the entity and even can come they to surpass it, being transmitted to environment (56). Such anomalous vibrations originate of external agents that cause them. For example, a mobile traveling through an entity, thus the movement of the airplanes through the air, of the ships in the sea (57), a sunk objects in the water. Or any agent that be capable to cause an alteration of the structure of an entity, as for example, the vibrant vocal cords or those of a musical instrument; a sphere pulsate and even by the molecules, atoms or ions of any capable type of agent to cause vibrations, inside a different pattern of the structure of the entity that suffers the disruption. Or by any important source of energy actuated (58) on the structure of an entity.
In the case of the electromagnetic waves (59) are created for the vibration of an electric charge in the vacuum and spread in the vacuum (60), as opposed to the mechanical waves (61) that as the sound require of a substantial middle.
The vibration of an electric charge creates a wave (62) that consists of the vibration of the magnetic and electric components of the existing field around the electric charges or magnetic bodies, in state of movement.
Every electric charge, in the presence of another charge, is connected to a static electric field and every magnetic body in the presence of another magnetic body is connection to a static magnetic field.
The static magnetic and electric fields extend in all the directions of the continuous one 3-D, being wrapped around their generating source, and diminishing their intensity in inverse proportion with their distance regarding the source.
So much the electricity as the magnetism can exist independently one of another, to ways in the static form of states.
When the electric charge is in movement, additionally creates in its environment a magnetic field and the magnetic body in movement also create in its environment an electric field (63). Of such way, the electric charges and the magnetic bodies in movement are to ways surrounded by the magnetic and electric fields, that to ways are together and vibrant if the electric charge vibrate (64), inside their orthogonal joint (65).
Therefore, an electromagnetic wave is the oscillation of an electromagnetic field (66). And, to though, the electromagnetic wave is expanded in all the directions of the continuous one 3-D, to ways the direction of the electromagnetic wave is perpendicular to orthogonal joint of the magnetic and electric fields in that direction.
The present image that has of the electromagnetic wave is that of that the vibration of the electric charge puts in oscillation the connection of the magnetic and electric fields, to the way as causes oscillates a cord, with its extremes closed. This electromagnetic oscillation occurs in the same plan in which moves the wave. On the other hand, the direction of the electromagnetic wave is the same one of the energy (67) that transports.
In the electromagnetic field should be distinguished:
- The lines of force which seem produced on a cord closed in an extreme and open in another extreme, being moved to long rays and being extended cross. These lines have the form of loops.
- Tangent in each point of the lines of force is the lines that represent the direction and intensity of the lines of force.
- The sinusoidal wave, similar to the lines of force, progressively is weakened with their distance regarding the source.
(52) The current definition of a wave is that is a disruption repeatedly and periodic that moves through a middle since a locating to another. In extensive sense is the propagation of a disruption.
(53) The energy, according to its classical definition, is the capacity that possesses an entity to carry out a work, understanding for this the application of a force inside a journey. This notion induced to understand the energy as not material phenomenon.
(54) That is to say, composed by molecules, atoms, ions and, still subparticles. These entities belong to material phenomenon known as substance, that appeared during the process of the generation of the Universe when this I am chilled.
(55) When the vibrations are maximums can come they to break the structure, breaking to own entity.
(56) A wave caused in a metallic bar placed in the vacuum does not pass to environment. The waves of the sea are reflected to most totally in the cliffs.
(57) The aquatic waves, generated by the propellers of the ships, are especially complex.
(58) The energy constitutes the original phenomenon of the material existence. In the first instants of the Big-bang, to extraordinarily high temperatures only energy existed.
(59) Waves that are not vibration of the substance but according to the author would be vibration of the energy.
(60) In the quantum theory the vacuum this full one by energy and the energy possesses quantum composition.
(61) The mechanical waves only spread through the substance, that is to say, of entities structured atomic.
(62) An electromagnetic wave is an electric field in conjunction with a magnetic field, oscillating with the same frequency.
(63) The electric charge in movement possesses the behavior dual electric-magnetic. In turn, the magnetic body in movement acquires the behavior dual electric-magnetic.
(64) Previously it had said himself that the simple movement of an electric charge or of a magnetic body produced the vibration of the connection of the magnetic and electric fields.
(65) The orthogonal joint of the magnetic and electric fields consists of that one and another are to ways perpendiculars. This joint occurs in all the directions in which said fields extend.
(66) An electromagnetic wave, as opposed to the mechanical waves, in the present electromagnetic theory is empty waves, that is to say, that do not transport energy. Nevertheless, the author considers, with the reintroduction of the "ether", in the quantum theory, that the electromagnetic wave can be the propagation of the disruption of a structure of the electromagnetic energy. Also, the author has presented that the quanta of energy of the electromagnetic fields and gravitation move with a directly proportional velocity to the temperature as occurs with the particles. Of such way, velocities exist superluminales, in the gravity and maximum in the supergravity, since originate of a great deal more high temperatures to that where he was originated the electromagnetism. Currently develops the theory holistic of the matter.
(67) The author considers as an important characteristic of the waves of the electromagnetic field, also, of the waves of the gravity field that of that can be disruptions of the electromagnetic and gravity energy that transport energy. But the waves of the substance are substantial disruptions that transport energy. The difference among the substance and the field, in the electromagnetic and gravity forms, is that the particles possess intrinsic mass while the quanta of the energy not. In the gravity this natural condition of the energy permits the superluminal velocity of the graviton (Contribution of the doctor Carlos Lemoine to the Theory Holistic of the matter of the Author).
The photons in traffic when interact with the atoms present one of the two values (68) of its spin. The photons, constituents of a ray of light, have polarized its spin, when present tendency with respect to one of those two values of the spin.
In turn, the polarization of the photon is similar to the particles. The electric field and the magnetic field oscillate cross, in the normal plan to the direction of the movement of the photon and perpendicularly to each another. This oscillation can rotate to the way of a mill of wind. That is to say, the oscillation can be expanded in all the directions due to the innumerable plans that exist when the electric field rotates around their axis. Then, a wave can oscillate in a plan up- down, left - right or in any angle. But, to ways the oscillation, regarding a specific direction, concentrates on the direction of the movement of the photon.
For which it is said that the photon is polarized according to a specific direction of the electric field (69).
The white light is a mixture of waves that oscillate in all the possible angles. Therefore, an ordinary ray of light mixes photons with all the different possible polarizations joined. But certain substances, as the crystal of calcium or a leaf of Polaroid, only permit the step of the photons whose electric field oscillates according to a specific direction. Of course, when the light crosses one of these substances is polarized, because all the photons have its electric field aligned, according to the only direction that the substance polarizing permits. The polarization can be lineal, horizontal, vertical, to circulate, elliptic and aleatory.
Due to that the ray, incident on the substance polarizing, presents polarizations distributed uniformly on all the directions, only a small portion of the ray achieves cross it (70).
It should be distinguished among the polarization of the photon and that of its spin that, to though, intimately related are not the same thing. While, that the axis of the spin is to ways parallel to the direction of the movement of the photon, the direction of the axis of the polarization of the wave of light is to ways perpendicular to the direction of trip of the wave.
(68) Forward or toward behind parallel to the direction of the photon.
(69) The photon, as electromagnetic wave, presents the vector of the electric field oriented in all the directions. Nevertheless, in the case of the light polarized the vector of the electric field is oscillating in only a direction. Also, is able that the vector of the field rotates around the axis of propagation of the light. Depending on the sense in which the rotation occurs the light can be polarized circulate to the right or to the left.
(70)Nevertheless, the leaf Polaroid splits the incident light ray in two as if was previously polarized only in two directions, perpendiculars among itself, phenomenon still without explanation.
The electromagnetic wave is a cross type of wave (71), due to that its direction is perpendicular to that of the electromagnetic field. By that reason the electromagnetic wave presents sinusoidal undulations, that is to say, with crests and valleys.
If we represent the continuous one 3-D, in a system of coordinates Cartesian x, and, z will have in the plane xy will be the electric field, in the plane xz will be the magnetic field, the electromagnetic wave in the plane xy, and coinciding with the axis x the direction of the wave. Traditionally in the wave only the electric component is represented due to that the magnetic component essentially is the same thing that the electric field.
Due to that the plan of the electromagnetic wave coincides with that of the direction of its movement lacks the height of some cross types of waves as happens with the mechanical waves in the sea.
In exchange for height possesses amplitude, which decreases lineally in function (72) of the measured distance since the source.
The amplitude (73) is the distance among the axis of joint of the magnetic and electric fields and the maximum or most minimum displacement respect to axis that reaches during its vibration.
The length of the electromagnetic wave is the length of one of its complete cycles, generally defined, as the length among two crests or two valleys consecutives (74).
(71) Another type of waves is the longitudinal as is the case of the waves of the sea, where the direction of the oscillation is the same direction of the wave.
(72) This is valid for considerable totals of light, not thus for few photons.
(73) In the waves of the substance the amplitude is the distance among the position of rest, or equilibrium, and the most maximum displacement, that come the particles to reach.
(74) In the waves of the substance the length of the wave, also, is the distance among two consecutive cycles. In the longitudinal waves the distance of a comprehension to the next one. And in the cross waves the distance among a crest and the next one.
The electromagnetic waves, as in general every wave, present various relative types of behaviors of movement that can have the source that produces them and to its propagation beyond the entity where are originated.
When the vibrant electric charge is found in rest reaches to all the observers with the same frequency, with that is produced in its origin. But, the electric charge is able that additionally to vibrate move with relation to the direction of the wave, well in the same sense or in against.
This it produces for an observer, considered in repose (75), the called effect Doppler; nevertheless, that the source maintains the frequency of emission of the wave, the observer registers it greater, when the issuing source travels to its encounter, and smaller, when the issuing source moves away of the observer.
The apparent change of the frequency of the wave is consequence of the change in the distance among the source that originates the wave and the observer that registers it.
According to the relative position of the observer with respect to the electric charge is able that the real number of cycles be altered and arrive it a greater number of cycles by second if a net movement of approach exists or, a number less than cycles by second, if on the other hand move away.
Due to that the waves are the propagation of the disruption of the structure of an entity, in the wave various changes in the exact limit of its step to a structure with a different density are produced, for example, to that of the environment.
When the wave passes to a middle of different density (76) the following can be produced effects (77), all associates with the curvature of the path of the wave:
- Refraction, that is the change in the direction of the wave, to ways accompanied by the change of length and velocity of the wave. The refraction is the cause that the prisms can separate an incident light ray in its wave lengths constituents.
- Reflection (78), which is the convergence of the waves in a focal point to collide against the barrier, that exists in the limit coincident with the change of density and to be returned inside the first middle of propagation. During the reflection of the waves the interference phenomenon of the same length is produced, according to the algebraic sum of its patterns.
If the waves, original and reflected, are found in phase, that is to say, its crests coincide, the waves are reinforced. But, if they are 180 degrees out of phase, the crests coincide with the valleys of the other, and the waves are annulled.
- Diffraction, that is the curvamiento of the wave on account of flanking obstacles and cracks; the total of the diffraction is directly proportional to the length of the wave.
The curvature of the light can come to be so extreme that is the cause of the extreme illusions, such as that of the not concealment of the Sun at the moment limit in which should occur for a specific place, or that the Sun be seen like columns of fire.
(75) Due to the relative nature of the movement will to ways be able to take to observer in rest, referring the state of the generating source of the wave to system of reference of the observer.
(76) The effects suffered by the electromagnetic wave, when changes the density of the middle in which spreads, have been restricted to its interaction with the molecular, atomic structures or ionized. The author and the physical American Tom Van Flandern consider that such effects by change of density, also, they occur when it is passed to a subordinate middle to a field of gravity of an extraordinarily massive source as the Sun. This it would be the true cause of the effect Einstein of curvamiento of the light when light passes very near the Sun.
(77) These effects are observables for waves in 3-D, as the electromagnetic, or in 2-D, as the waves in the water.
(78) The effects of reflection and refraction, is able that they occur when the electromagnetic wave it passes very near a source of intense gravity. (Hypothesis of the author).
The wave is the physical phenomenon of transportation of energy through the continuous 3-D (79), without transportation of the substance or of the energy (80) whose vibration produces the wave.
The wave transfers the energy since its generating source to the most maximum limit that manages to reach. In its translation the energy loses intensity being weakened.
The quantity of energy transported by the wave is directly proportional to square of the amplitude of the wave. Of such way, a low wave of amplitude transports low energy and a high wave of amplitude transports high energy.
The electromagnetic waves transport the energy in called packages of energy photons and its energy is directly proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. That is to say, to number of the vibrations (81) that occurs for second.
(79) The continuous one 3-D is formed by the entity and its environment (Theory Holistic of the matter of the author).
(80) In the case of the electromagnetic wave, the wave in itself same is equal, electromagnetic energy the energy that transports.
(81) The vibration of an electromagnetic wave produces the oscillation of the wave.
All kinds of atoms, ion (82), or molecule (83) possess an electromagnetic unique spectrum (84).
The spectrum of a great number of elements is established (85) experimentally.
The spectrum (86) is the consequence of the joint individual of photons of different energies (87) that a type of atom, ion or molecule can emit or absorber (88). Thus, the spectrum of an ion and molecule is different to spectrum of the atom discharged, pertinent to same element, for example to hydrogen.
Three types of spectrum exist:
- Those of lines sharp with a determined wide.
- Those of series of lines you join called bands.
- The fringes that extend on a wide rank of continuous called lengths of waves.
The lines of the own spectrum of processes of absorption are black and correspond to color lines absent, as a result of certain lengths of wave, of the electromagnetic spectrum, that have been absorbed for the atoms of the masses of gases, that the electromagnetic waves, originating from the space, they crossed during their trip to the Land. In the meantime, the lines of the spectrum of the processes of emission are colored.
The energy of the waves absorbed or emitted is exactly equal (89) to the difference of energy among two orbital of electrons, in the atoms that absorbed or emitted.
The spectrum permits to determine the atoms of the elements that been present inside the body transmitter and/or absorbent, if the atoms are ionized or if atoms form molecules (90). Also, spectrum permits to determine if atoms are moving and in which direction do it. This is known by the effect Doppler.
Besides, the quantity of the atoms can be established that been present and the temperature of the bodies that form. The quantity is established for the depth and the temperature by the wide one of the lines of the spectrum.
The photons according to its energy are classified for type of radiation varying among the rays gamma that are the rays of greater energy, and the waves of radio, that are those of smaller energy (91).
The complete composition of the atomic spectrum according to the types of radiation is presented in the Board 3.
Wave Length Rank frequency Rank radiation type
10 to the 24 - 10 to the 20
More less than 1 picometre
10 to the 20 - 10 to the 17
1 nanometer - 1 picometre
10 to the 17 - 10 to the 15
400 nanometer - <1 nanometer
40 to the 14 - 75 to the 14
750 micrometer - <400 nanometer
10 to the 14 - 40 to the 14
2.5 micrometer - <750 nanometer
10 to the 13 - 10 to the 14
25 micrometer - <2.5 micrometer
30 to the 11 - 10 to the 13
1 millimeter - <25 micrometer
< 10 to the 13
Greater that 1 millimeter
The gamma rays are produced by the nuclear disintegration or the collision among elementary particles that travel to large velocities.
The X-rays by the deceleration of electrons, that travels to large velocities.
(82) An ion is an atom with one or more electrons added or lost with respect to its discharge state that is when the number of its electrons is equivalent to number of the protons. When the atom presents an excess of electrons the ion is negative and if lack it the ion is positive.
(83) They are two or more united atoms electromagnetic that form a unit.
(84) Thus the spectrum obtained of the atom of hydrogen is different from the spectrum of all the other existing atoms in the nature, such as the helium, oxygen etc. Of such way, acquaintance a spectrum is known the type about atom that it originated.
(85) The spectrum is a composed band of lines, of a specific thickness, known as lines of Fraunhofer who was its discoverer. The thickness of a line is called profile (profile).
(86) The spectrum can be of lines, bands or continuous. The continuous spectrum contains all the colors; such is the case of the white light.
(87) The energy of a photon is proportional directly to the frequency and inversely to the length of its associated wave.
(88) In the spectrum the absorption corresponds to dark lines and the emission to lines of color. Both types of lines possess a specific profile.
(89) There are some authors that define it proportional.
(90) The molecules only can exist in cold places as in the Land. With the elevation of the temperature the molecules break in free atoms and these are ionized.
(91) The emission or absorption of energy occurs only in certain definite frequencies clearly.
An optic sign spreads him minimum in a small very nearby known as wide wave lengths number of line.
The main properties of the lines spectrals are three:
- The central position of the line that corresponds to the frequency of the wave.
- The force of the line or intensity.
- The profile of the composed line by the wide natural one and the wide additional one of the line.
The wide additional one of the line is proper, by a part, to the collision among molecules, referred like the pressure of the wide band and, by the other, the movement aleatory of the molecules and to the difference of its velocities, calls the wide band of the Doppler.
The characterization of the pressure of the wide one is fact by means of the profile of Lorentz, defined like the factor of the form of the line spectral that is function of the difference among the numbers of wave (92) most maximum and central.
The wide of Doppler is measured by means of the profile of the Doppler that is function of the difference among the real and apparent frequencies of emission of the wave.
The profiles of Lorentz and Doppler combine in the called profile of Voigt.
(92) It is a number that characterizes the wave according to the density of a medium one determined through which spreads. The number of wave is equal to: angular frequency / velocity.
These electromagnetic waves cross mist, rain, snow, clouds and smoke, by which are utilized for transportation of voice and data.
They are used to transport signs of radio and television, Also, voice in systems of cell phone, to though, with next lengths of wave to that of microwave.
The infrared waves are thermals for which elevate the temperature of the object on which impact. Due to that they are produced by to most all the bodies, still, by the colds (93). The infrared waves are used to obtain maps and photos, where the images are built taking advantage of the differences of temperature, among the different components of the body transmitter, that cause correspond to the different colors.
(93) Not thus by the super colds.
The technology of the laser consists of the coherent electromagnetic production of radiation, utilizing the atoms of a determined middle substantial. The atoms are forced to enter an energy emission process since its layers of electrons, by prior stimulation of the step of the atoms to a state excited, that when is discharged generates said emission.
The main problem of the technology of the laser situates in reaching the greater purity in the ray radiated. The defect of purity of the laser originates mainly of the effects of the Doppler.
In this chapter the interaction atom- electromagnetism is presented, employed to produce the laser and is notified about the problem that introduces the Doppler.
With certainty is known that the atoms and the molecules present the electromagnetic phenomenon of interaction with the present field in the middle surrounding one or originating from electromagnetic sources of radiation. This interaction occurs of the two following ways:
- The atoms transform the electromagnetism received, in mechanical energy through the process of the absorption of photons.
- The atoms transform mechanical energy in electromagnetism, through the process of the radiation of photons that are delivered to surrounding space.
Also, is certain that such interaction of the atom with the 'space' (94), is an interaction in a continuous one 3-D, that is to say, in all the directions of a space three-dimensional, and that the transformations, in both senses, of the electromagnetism in mechanical energy of the atom, occur according to the equation of energy of Hamilton, that is to say:
Total mechanical Energy = Energy kinetic + potential Energy
This it signifies that the radiation or electromagnetic absorption produces changes in the energy kinetic and potential of the atom.
(94) The space is full of free fields or connected to its sources.
The mechanism, of this interaction, is not of the every acquaintance.
And ascertaining it the science of the physics has evolved, since the conception of the mechanical classic to the quantum conception.
According to the quantum theory, in the atom the electromagnetic energy is transformed into mechanical energy (95) and this in electromagnetic.
Therefore, the principle can be introduced that the interaction among the atom and the electromagnetic field is an interaction among the photon and the electron (96), in which the electromagnetic energy originates or becomes energy mechanical of the electron.
(95) The mechanical energy, that is to say, of the movement –energy kinetic- and of the position –potential.
(96) Even the free electrons when they pass through atoms reduce its velocity and radiate electromagnetism.
The atoms and molecules, as has been seen, only can exist in certain states characterized by specific quantities of energy. When these they change its state is because absorb or emit the exactly equal quantity of energy to pass to its new state.
The energy of a photon is equal to h x C / l
h x C is the constant Planck multiplied by the velocity of the light
l is the length of wave
If an atom or molecule absorbs a photon of energy h x C / l the atom changes of a state of energy to another higher state, increasing its energy in h x C / l. Of course, if the atom emits a photon changes to one more state under, diminishing its energy in h x C / l . By consequence:
a) If the atom or molecule absorbs a photon then
final energy – initial energy = h x C / l
b) If the atom or molecule emits a photon then
initial energy – final energy = h x C / l
In the electromagnetic process of emission the electrons lose potential energy, when it passes to an orbital more nearby nucleus. The potential energy loss reappears in electromagnetic form of energy, since the atom emits a photon of a specific frequency, with properties of wave, whose energy is equal to the difference of energy among the orbital initial and final. On the other hand, the electron accelerates, by to enlarge its velocity of translation, that is to say, desire energy kinetic that originates of the greater force exercised on him by the nucleus, by to be reduced the distance among them.
In the electromagnetic process of absorption the electrons gain potential energy, when it passes to an orbital more distant one regarding the nucleus.
The potential energy gained originates of the electromagnetic disappearance of energy radiated on the atom and equal to that of a photon incident, with properties of wave, whose energy is equal to the difference of energy among the orbital initial and final.
On the other hand, the electron decelerates, in its movement of translation, that is to say, loses energy kinetic, that is the consequence of the smaller force exercised on him by the nucleus, by to enlarge the distance among them.
This totally it tested in the experiments, carried out recently, in which it achievements 'to stop' the light, that in the process of absorption is able the electromagnetic energy to be reverted in the change of the orientation of the spin, that is to say, in the orientation, up or down, of the electrons (97).
(97) The author asks: the orbital at the moment angular change by the step of the electron of an orbital one to another ¿how operates? If the angular moment diminishes should exist some type of radiation hyperfine that would accompany to process of absorption. On the contrary, by to enlarge ¿of where takes the energy? In this case, can originate of the greater intensity of its interaction with the nucleus?
In the interaction photon – charged particle is produced exchange among electromagnetic energy and energy mechanic (98).
(98) All the accelerators of particles are base on to increase the energy kinetic lineal of a charged particle through electric fields.
It is, also, clear that the SWE provides a completely satisfactory description of the spectrum of the atom of hydrogen (99), keeping in mind the principle of uncertainty and the nature of wave of the electron. Nevertheless, spectra exist that still deserve attention (100).
The exact sense of the SWE is the one that taking a function of wave valid (101), is defined mathematically to electron in terms of its properties of wave. The function is represented for t.
This function gives the total of its energy from adding its energy kinetic and its potential energy, that is to say:
Total energy i = Energy kinetic i + potential Energy i
i determines one of the axes of the continuous one 3-D
As to ready it was said, this equation is defined in a continuous one 3-D, that is to say, in agreement, to a system of coordinates Cartesian x, and, z. Therefore, the function is defined on each axis (102).
The SWE is represented for:
Ei = Hi
Each function of wave τ has a corresponding energy E and by analogy with the atom of Bohr is called orbital. These orbital represent the density of the distribution of electrons that float around the nucleus with a potential energy given. The function of wave pertaining to the smaller energy in an atom is called state discharged or state E1. Any another state of an atom with energy > E1, it knows like state excited of the atom. The energy is negative indicating that the electron, in an orbit, is tied to nucleus. The energy is zero when the electron and nucleus are considered infinitely separated. The level of energy of a determined orbital is proportional to its potential energy; of such way, the more distant is an orbit of the greater nucleus is its energy (103).
The square of the absolute value of t it is proportional to the probability to find an electron in a point (x, and, z) of the continuous one 3-D, that is to say, in a certain volume, by this is called density of probability (104).
For the atom of hydrogen the SWE indicates an infinite number of possible levels of energy. For energy zero the system becomes continuum, where any energy is possible.
On this point the electron flows free through the space to a specific velocity according to its energy kinetic (105). The free electron loses the angular moment and acquires longitudinal moment, regularly rectilinear.
The solutions obtained of the SWE for the atom of hydrogen are extended through methods of approximation to other atoms that do not have exact solutions, maintaining the idea of orbital. Such orbital have the same form, but the energies are very different.
(99) Due to its simplicity, since is an electron around of a proton Also, exactly for some other atoms as Helium, Lithium etc.
(100) For example, the spectrum of the actinides has been under study for many years.
(101) Are possible many as e1, e2, e3 etc. Their solutions can be negatives, 0, positive or complex.
(102) This is: Ei = Hi according to x + Hi according to y + Hi according to z.
(103) It possesses smaller negative energy and, therefore, it is near to the energy 0. There can be orbits with equal or very similar energy; therefore, there can be step, inter orbital of electrons, without emission or with radiation of very scarce energy, when the energies of the orbits are nearby equal.
(104) ÷ t ÷ High to the 2. The total probability to find to electron is 1.
(105) In such state the atom is found ionized. And the energy to do it is called energy of ionization.
The laser (106) is the device for the creation, amplification and broadcast of a cylindrical narrow and intense ray of form of light coherent (107), of a specific frequency and with a most minimum dispersion.
Some natural sources of coherent microwave exist that originate of the space interstellar (108).
The laser is in general an artificial product (109) that produces light in the rank of the infrared wave to ultraviolet, now extended to the frequency of X-rays. The laser can come to be extremely intense, highly directional and very pure in frequency (110).
(106)It is the acronym of Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
(107) It is light that spreads in a specific direction of the 3-D, composed of waves of a same length that are found in phase. While the current light is directed in all directions, due to that its emission is aleatory and is composed of waves of several lengths with different Relation of phase.
(108) For example, the Great Nebula of Orion is one of the coherent sources of microwave. These waves really are maser (Microwaves amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) natural.
(109) Chat Townes is the precursor of the laser by their investigations on masers. Townes shared the Nobel Prize of physics 1964.
(110) The atom of cesium possesses the property that under a good vacuum radiates in a narrow spectral line, whose frequency and length of wave can be determined exactly.
The laser consists of three basic components:
- External Source of energy, which can be special light of lamps, light of another laser, an electric current or a chemical reaction.
- The middle of the laser, that can be a gas, a liquid, a semiconductor, or a solid, which give its own light.
- Cavity which is of rectangular form closed in its extremes by mirrors; one totally reflective and the other partially refractive, which do that the light oscillate of an extreme to another of the cavity, through the middle of that is fact the laser and an even narrow ray to exterior. The distance among the covers is the length of the cavity of the laser.
The technology of the laser is bases on to amplify the power of the light incident, by means of the stimulation of the atoms of the middle of the laser, to radiate coherent light. This technology understands:
The base of the laser is the increase of the power of a sign optic at the outset with respect to that of entrance. This term is synonym of amplification. A gain optic negative signifies a loss. The power, or intensity, is the energy transfer rat by unit of time.
The gain of power is achieved by means of successive oscillations of the ray of light inside the reflecting covers of the cavity.
The normal state of the atoms of a body in the Land is that of the state discharged, that is to say, in which there is not electromagnetic emission of radiation. This does not it rule out that some atoms be found in excited state (111). But, the majority of the atoms are in state discharged.
One of the necessary conditions for the coherent production of light is to invest the state of the atomic population (112), of such way that the great majority of the atoms be excited and only a very low quantity they be discharged. For manage to excite a population is required to add him energy, which a process is done by means of known as optician pumps.
(111) The electrons in the state excited, inside the atoms, spontaneously decay to state discharged by means of electromagnetic emission of waves that are of difficult detection.
(112) It refers to the atoms that compose the gas or material liquid or solid, that is used to produce the laser.
The two basic states of a population of atoms are the discharged and excited.
The state discharged of the population corresponds to joint of atoms that are in its state of most minimum energy, that is when its electrons are found inside orbital since the ones that cannot decay, either for being in the most internal one (113) or all the orbital internal (114) to be found occupied by other electrons (115). It is represented for ½ 1>
The state excited of a population corresponds to joint of atoms that are excited, that is to say, when present electrons inside any of the orbital that continue to n = 1 and are able decay (116). It is represented for½ 2>
The state discharged and excited are ortonormal (117) and form a system (118). The difference of energy in the system is the energy difference among these two states, for example, among 1 s and 2 p. That is to say:
E2 - E1 = h x w
E2 is the energy of the state excited, for example, of the state 2 p
E1 is the energy of the state discharged, for example, of the state 1 s
h is the constant one of Planck
w is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave
An electron can pass from ½ 1> to ½ 2> by absorbing a photon real of energy h x w, It taken of an electromagnetic field.
Or the electron can decay of ½ 2> to ½ 1> by emitting a photon real of energy h x w, that is position in the electromagnetic field, that this composed one of a lot photons real and virtual. A few photons real aggregates or taken of the electromagnetic field it do not affect.
An arbitrary quantum state, for a system of an atomic population, is defined like the lineal combination of all the possible states multiplied by a coefficient υ dependent of the time. Thus the quantum state of the system, for the population in the two basic states is:
½ _> = υ 1(t)½ 1> + υ 2(t)½ 2>
½ _> is the quantum State of the system
υ1 is the coefficient of the state discharged ½ 1>
υ2 is the coefficient of the state excited ½ 2>
( t) function of the time
All the spatial information is in ½ 1> and ½ 2> while the temporary information in υ1 and υ2. The information spatial depends on the exact nature of the state, for example: s, p, d, etc. The squares of υ1 and υ2 are the probabilities (119) to find an atom in the state discharged and in the excited, respectively (120).
(113) It is the case of the atom of hydrogen when is found discharged.
(114) An orbital one is internal relating to another when is found more nearby to nucleus.
(115) The atom discharged cannot emit radiation.
(116) every atom excited can emit radiation.
(118) A system is the assembly of the levels and sub levels of energy (eigenvalues) that an atom presents.
(119) These probabilities vary in the time.
(120) The joint probability of the states discharged and excited is 1.
The normal atoms of populations, in the state discharged, should absorb the energy of photons real incidents, to pass to state excited. Nevertheless, the atoms in that state, after certain time (121), the atoms spontaneously decays to state discharged, emitting photons of the same energy of them absorbed.
A technique of to pump electromagnetic energy, to invest an atomic population, is the call optician pumps, that was utilized in the first laser and continues being used.
The technique of optician pumps consists of radiating the material or medium (122) of the laser with higher light of frequency than the frequency of the laser, in order to avoid be produced the phenomenon of resonance (123), and without producing the even atoms of the state discharged to excited.
In lasers of gas other techniques are used additionally. It is known as it pumps for collision; the molecules of the gas cause collide with other molecules or with electrons freed by means of discharges electrics (124).
The other technique is that of molecular dissociation that consists of causing the wiggle quick of the electrons, by the action of an external magnetic field; the behavior oscillatory of the electrons induces them to emit radiation laser (125).
(121) Time of decay of the electron.
(122) The material of the laser can be a gas, liquid or solid.
(123) The magnetic phenomenon of resonance was discovered by Isidor Rabi, in 1938.
(124) For example, in lasers of Neon. The addition of Helium to Neon increases the absorption of energy, on the part of the atoms, of the energy radiated by the free electrons, during its collision against the electrons inside the atoms.
(125) It is the case of the carbon dioxide lasers.
A population invested of atoms (126) enters a coherent light emission process, when cause impact photons on its electrons that are found excited.
Such photons should have energy equal to the difference of energy among the state excited and the discharged (127), call frequency Rabi. Only, in this case the photons incidents will stimulate (128) that the electrons struck emit photons in the same frequency, phase and direction of the incidents, that is to say, they produce photons cloned. The photons radiated are added to the photons incidents, inside a process of amplification, and together intervene in a new repetition of the emission stimulated of coherent light. This it produces a sudden emission of a coherent gust of light, through which the great majority of the atoms are discharged, in a giddy reaction in chain.
All this process occurs during a lower time for the decay spontaneous (129) of the electrons. In this manner, the emission laser is produced approximately to same time and in the same direction (130).
(126) In the maser causes impacts photons of energy inside the frequency of the microwave.
(127) If the energy of the photons incidents is a great deal greater can expel the electrons of the atom ionizing it. For it the photons should have an equivalent energy to the call of ionization that is specific of each type of atom.
(128) Chat Townes and Arthur Schawlow, in their investigations with microwave, discovered that the electromagnetic waves, when they interact with the atoms and molecules return stronger.
(129) This time, to though, aleatory is sufficiently long, so that the life of the population invested turn out to be stable.
(130) In the normal process the atoms emit electromagnetic radiation in times and aleatory directions.
The orbital s, p, d, f, etc. can present subdivision due to the presence of the structure superfine, to ready well be for natural condition of the atom or induced by means of the effect Zeeman.
If the orbital most internal one is subdivided, s, that is to ways a state discharged, in the hyperfine sub levels of energy + F and -F two states are obtained discharged that they are represented for ½ 1> and ½ 2>. In this way, the state excited is represented for ½ 3>. As consequence, in the state excited can to occur the two types of transition Rabi following:
R1½ 1> <-> ½ 3>
R2½ 2> <-> ½ 3>
R1 is h x w of the photon with energy = E3 - E1
R2 is h x w of the photon with energy = E3 - E2
Initially the atomic population is found in thermal equilibrium (131) among the states discharged ½ 1> and ½ 2>. The state excited ½ 3>, initially it is found empty.
By means of the technical one Raman, that consists of applying a ray laser tuned in a frequency Rabi(132), R1, to pass the atoms of the state ½ 1> -> ½ 3>, of where decay to state ½ 1> or ½ 2> Emitting photons with energy = E3 - E1 or E3 – E2. If the atoms decay to state ½ 1> they are able again to be excited, through repeating the application of the frequency Raman, R1. After certain number of repetitions of this process, approximately the totality of the population will be found in the state discharged E2, dark state call, because no longer will be able to be stimulated more emission of radiation.
Nevertheless, if it wants to maintain the atoms radiating, applies another laser, tuned in the frequency Raman R2 to pass the atoms of the state ½ 2> -> ½ 3>, of where decay to state ½ 1> or ½ 2> Emitting now with energy = E3 - E2.
If the atoms decay to state ½ 2> they are able again to be excited, applying again the laser. After certain number of cycles, the population will be found in the state discharged E1, which will be now the dark state.
To avoid the interruption of the process, the lasers change of frequency increasing one and decremented the other, of such way that at the same time have only a laser carrying out the optical pump, and never one of the dark states be reached.
(131) approximately, equal number of atoms in both states.
(132) When the frequency Rabi manages to apply a ray laser is called frequency Raman.
The transition of the electrons of a state of energy any to another of smaller energy as, for example, of E2 to E1 produces the emission of a photon of energy h x ω and wave of a discrete specific frequency (133) ω, directly proportional to the difference E2 - E1.
The same thing occurs, to though in contrary sense, when the electrons pass to a greater state of energy, case in which absorb a photon of energy h x ω.
The frequency of the wave ω, of a specific electronic transition, is known as the frequency of resonance.
The different natural frequencies of resonance of the atoms was measured by Isidoro Rabi (134) by means of a technique that invented, magnetic call resonance, that refers to the absorption resonant of energy by the atom (135).
Particularly, Rabi discovered and manipulated the hyperfine transition of the atoms. Rabi achievements to change the direction of the spin of the electrons and protons (136), he applied electromagnetic sources of energy with equal frequency to that of the spin of the respective particle. Rabi applying change frequency radio waves the direction of the spin of the proton of the hydrogen, as a result of causing to absorb resonant electromagnetic energy.
In general, the frequencies of absorption - emission of the atoms are frequencies Rabi.
(133) These frequencies are identical for all the atoms of a type of element given. In the case of the atom of cesium 133 their frequencies of emission are 9, 192, 631 and 770 cycles by second.
(134) Rabi gained, by this work, the prize Nobel in 1944.
(135) For example, in a laser when the cavity and the atoms have the same frequency is produces by resonance the emission of photons.
(136) In these particles the spin is connected with the moment of the quantity of movement.
The phenomenon of polarization has in the laser the following meanings:
- The polarization of the spin of the photon that consists of restricting its orientation well behind or ahead of its parallel direction to that of the electromagnetic wave, polarization that is different to that of the particles elementals (137).
- The management of the polarization of the spin of the electrons, of the atomic middle of the laser that is a consequence of the experiments of Rabi, to though, said polarization can occur in the nature spontaneously (138).
(137) According to the experiments of Stern/Gerlach the spin of the elementary particles is quantized in the up the orientation and below the magnetic field. The spin polarized the preserve, to though, restricted to a spatial only direction.
(138) To See Klipstein, Lamoreaux and Fortson (1995).
The effects distorting potential of the laser are of two classes. Those are: The effects of dispersion and the effects of the Doppler.
When the light of a source crosses the middle, inside the cavity of the laser, the absence of the perfect uniformity of the density of the middle produces certain deviation of the light that emits the laser with relation to the phase of the light incident. If the middle is solid the deviation occurs inside an only frequency and dispersion is called of Brilloiun. But, if the middle is liquid or gaseous, the frequency of the dispersion depends on the fluctuations of the density of the middle and dispersion is called of Rayleigh.
On the other hand, the population invested generates radiation of light by spontaneous discharge of the population excited, that is to say, without resulting of the radiation stimulated by the collisions of the photons incidents.
This light is incoherent in front of that of the ray laser and it knows like dispersion of Raman.
The Doppler has consequences additionally distorting in the light produced by the laser. Its undesirable consequences are:
The laser presents some distortions, due to the dispersion and to Doppler, which do that the laser, emit, inside a closely band, several frequencies of light. The coherent characteristic of light is relating to the great majority of the waves, components of the radiation, but not to its totality.
The spectral line of a laser presents certain wide that corresponds mainly to:
- The dispersion of Brilloiun or Rayleigh.
- The effects of dissemination of Raman (139).
- The natural collision among the atoms (140).
- The collision of the atoms against the walls of the cavity.
Also, a wide additional one exists (141) caused by the effect Doppler (142) of the movement, with different velocities and directions, of the atoms with respect to the direction of the light emitted, producing the landslides to red, when said directions coincide, and to blue when are in contrary sense.
In direct proportion, the Doppler broadening changes, with the temperature (143) and the length (144) of the cavity of the laser.
(139) An important factor of distortion of the emission of the laser is that of the dissemination of Raman proper to spontaneous traffic, during the emission, of some atoms, of the state excited to discharge.
(140) Pressure of the wide one of the line.
(141) Doppler broadening.
(142) The effect Doppler is of all types of wave. In the case optic, in the astronomical scale, changes the light to blue when the stars approach to red when move away.
(143) The velocity of the atoms and molecules is a direct function of the temperature.
(144) The apparent frequencies of emission of the proper light to Doppler, are in direct function of the length of the cavity of the laser.
The profile of the Doppler is defined like the factor of the form (145) of the line spectral of the proper laser to Doppler and express the difference among the frequency apparent (146), in which seems to emit the laser and the real frequency in which does it.
(145) The factor of form originating from the pressure of the wide one is called profile of Lorentz that combined with that of the Doppler constitutes the profile of Voigt.
(146) It know as detuning.
Light detuning that seems not to originate of an atomic process of transition nevertheless to be that its origin, due to the distortion of its frequency of emission by the effect Doppler. Depending on the relative movement among the photons and the atoms the frequency enlarges when coincide in direction or diminishes when go in against.
The effect of the collisions of the atoms against the walls of the cavity of the laser is to cause the magnetic disruption of the states of energy of the structure hyperfine atomic. Norman Ramsey found that to reduce said disruption the walls with the cavity should be covered with Teflon. Subsequently, it was established that, at least, for the cesium is a great deal better covered them with paraffin.
The transportation of energy and the transportation of a sign by means of the electromagnetic wave constitute the two large physical results of which the one will depend that the velocities superluminales, based on the light, they come they to constitute a crucial fact in front of the present theory of the Relativity.
Nowadays, so much the transportation of energy as of signs continues restricted to be done with the velocity of the light, in the empty, or lower.
If in the future comes this velocity to surpass will be produced a great crisis in the physical theoretician, because there will be himself tested the transportation superluminal velocities existence.
The broadcast of data, voice, or image through an electromagnetic wave is performed by means of the technique of modulation.
The modulation is the creation of a binary pattern of 1s and 0s, to transmit data codified, through a network optic. This function is carried out for a modulator that controls the sign at the outset of a laser.
Two types of lasers exist:
- CW which have the capacity to emit radiation continuously.
- Pulse, that consists of the short or broken production of a gust with duration of milliseconds, microseconds, or nanoseconds.
The light emitted has form of pulse when the laser is bases on the step of the population invested to a normal one, producing a sudden only gust of laser; these are of greater power.
The light is continuous in the lasers CW. This it manages to causing oscillating the gust toward before and backwards, by means of the use of the mirrors that serve of covers of the cavity of the laser, one of which is semitransparent for, on the one hand, to permit the exit of the ray laser and, at the same time, to reflect part of the to bait new ray processes of optician pumps (147). With this technique, manages to invest the atomic population as soon as is uncharged and the continuous emission of light be stimulated; these are known as cw lasers, which have been the laser of smaller potency (148).
(147) In this case, is required that the atomic population can exist in minimum three states, dividing the discharged in two, by means of the use of the division hyperfine. Also, it is required to supply electromagnetic energy to replace the one that is radiated.
(148) Recently, in the University of the State of
The lasers tunings are the ones that can be adjusted to emit in a frequency among several.
If two lasers are, tuned in different frequency, the rays excite to groups of atoms of different velocity.
If the frequency of the lasers is considerably lower in front of an atomic transition, the rays will be absorbed for the atoms that with a high velocity move toward them. If there is a frequency very closed to the frequency of resonance, only the atoms can absorb it with parallel component of velocity to ray. In this case, two lasers can excite to same group of atoms, provided that they being tuned in frequencies, to though, different closed to that of resonance.
The phenomenon of the electromagnetic field is of a great complexity and difficulty of a correct comprehension. Its structure is not observable directly as if is it that of the atom, due to that the photon exists in the level of the scale of Planck (149). On the other hand, on account of the complexity of the demonstrations of the photon some times as wave and other as much as, the great dilemma exists of if is real(150), that constitution, or as maintained the school of Copenhagen it really physical are the photons and the wave its probability to find them in the continuous one 4-D, that is to say, a mathematical mechanism that permits the physicists to describe them statistically, since Photons only are perceptible in large quantities and not individually, as has been achieved with the atom.
Nevertheless that the electromagnetic wave itself continuous defining like the propagation in the vacuum of the vibration of the adapt of the electric field - magnetic (151) and as such its energy is in function of the amplitude of the wave, that is to say, of its intensity, it experimentally certain is that the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the atom occurs through the photons whose energy, as opposed to wave, depends on the frequency of the vibration (152), that is to say, from its quantum character, revealed in the effect photoelectric 153). A greater intensity of light has more photons than impact on a greater number of electrons, but if its frequency is not high there will not be liberation of electrons.
To weigh that the velocity of the photon is to ways C (154), Also, is experimentally established that the velocity of the wave is C, only in the vacuum, and that in any substantial middle is less than C and in the anomalous middle (155) is greater that C.
In this second splits, we will present, in the chapter 4, the electromagnetic interaction with the substantial middle and the velocities of subluminal wave and, in the chapter 5, the electromagnetic interaction with the anomalous middle and the velocity of wave superluminal, achieved with the technology Gain Assisted.
(149) The difference among the scale of the atom and that of Planck is similar to which exists among the size of a man and that of our galaxy. Still smaller is the scale of existence of the structure of the gravity field.
(150) In the formulation of the quantum theory two schools are recognized the realist and that of Copenhagen, that nevertheless to utilize the same equations differ radically in their interpretation of the duality wave-particle of the light. At present, the physicists are received to the second school. In every case, this shows that it is more important the philosophical interpretation in front of the mathematical apparatus.
(151) Adopting the realistic point of view these fields would be composed of photons similarly to as a substantial middle is it of atoms. (152) But, the photons possess velocity C while the atoms are closely in rest.
(153) Number of waves by second or in terms from the period the interim of the oscillation.
(154) Discovered in 1900 and that it consists of the expulsion of electrons of the atom caused by the incident of the light.
(155) The author maintains the theory that the velocity C of the photon is the value taken, by this "constant" fundamental, in ours present Universe that spreads to "super cold", that is to say, to 0 absolute of Kelvin. Not thus in the super temperatures that existed when the electromagnetic field appeared, after the Big-Bang. And that they will return to exist when this field return to its origin, when be integrated in the supergravity, in the end of the times, that is to say, when return to occur the Big-Crunch.
(156) They have been created from the technologies of the evanescent waves, developed by Gunter Nimtz, in Colonia, Germany, in 1992 and that of Gain Assisted, originated, in Princeton, US, by the group of Wang, Dogariu and Kuzmich, in the 2000.
The electromagnetic wave interacts with the substantial middle through two mechanisms that result of its duality wave - particle. The first one, that is fully accepted, is the mechanism of the processes of absorption - electromagnetic emission of radiation by the atoms, of fundamentally quantum nature. And the second mechanism is of the interaction exactly undulatory, that the author proposes in front of the empty theoretician existing.
In this chapter are presented both mechanisms pertaining to the effects of refraction, consequence of the quantum interaction, and reflection that can be owed to the interaction undulatory.
Of these effects, the basic one for the theme that develops, in the following chapter, is the effect of refraction, since is one of the bases of the technology Gain Assisted, for the achievement of the velocity superluminal.
The electromagnetic wave possesses at least five types of velocities. These velocities are:
- That of the photon real (156) quantum component of the electromagnetic field (157).
- That of the energy that transports like wave. In this case the quantity of energy depends on the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave.
- That of the sign when the electromagnetic wave transports information. That is to say, when the energy that transports the electromagnetic wave has been modulated, by means of a binary process of generation of the wave, of lit dull, that is to say, periodically presence or not of the wave, that causes corresponds according to a system of codification. For example, the ASCII (158), or the EBCDIC (159), etc. to letters, numbers and special characters.
- That of phase pertaining to the velocity of the phase of a wave confined to an only frequency and length of wave.
- That of group that is the velocity of phase of a package of waves of different frequencies and lengths of wave.
These five velocities in the vacuum are equal to C. But, in substantial middle of normal dispersion or in anomalous regions the only velocity that continues equal to C is that of the photon. The other velocities change.
(156) Energy packaged in quanta and directly proportional to the frequency of oscillation of the electromagnetic wave.
(157) When the energy packaged of the photon vibrates, cross to the direction of the wave, and inside the joint of the electric-magnetic fields, the disruption of the electromagnetic field is produced, fact of photons. This disruption of the field spreads in the 4-D, and in this sense, constitutes a wave in the purest classical meaning. But, as opposed to the mechanical wave, whose particles components are practically stops, the electromagnetic wave spreads together with the myriads of photons real that compose it, to the velocity C. Therefore, the electromagnetic wave is as real as presents it the realistic school, but, simultaneously is not of the all the classical wave, but Also the movement of myriads of photons, whose energy depends on its frequency of oscillation, that is the same one of the wave, and that move isotropic and probabilistically with the wave, as it defines the school of Conpenhague. This is one idea of the Author.
(158) American code standard for the exchange of information.
(159) Extend binary coded decimal interchange code.
A middle is the entity where is originated and transports a wave, composed without doubt in the substantial middle (160) by a series of units interconnected and in interactions with its adjacent permitting, of such way, that a disruption be able propagate (161). When a middle finishes another begins, the inter phase of the two middles is referred like the limit.
The behavior of a wave when reaches the end of a middle, through which spreads, is known like the behavior of the limit.
When an electromagnetic wave passes from middle to another can be that the wave goes:
- Of the vacuum to a middle of atomic composition, in normal regions. The velocity C changes to a smaller velocity, due to the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the atoms that compose the substantial middle. That interaction retards the wave as a result of the interim of the cycle of absorption - emission of the atoms.
- Of a middle of atomic composition, of normal dispersion, with a specific optic density to another middle, also, of atomic composition and normal dispersion, but of different optic density. The first middle can have smaller or greater optic density that the second. When the electromagnetic wave passes from a substantial middle of smaller density to another of greater density its velocity diminishes and, in the contrary case, its velocity enlarges.
This is due to the biggest or smaller frequency of the atomic cycle of absorption-emission of the second middle with relation to first.
- Of a middle of atomic composition to vacuum. The velocity of the electromagnetic wave returns C, due to the absence of the atomic cycle of absorption-emission.
- Of the vacuum or since a middle of atomic composition, of normal dispersion, to an anomalous region. The velocity of the electromagnetic wave returns greater that C.
- Of an anomalous region to vacuum or to a middle of atomic composition. The velocity of the electromagnetic wave diminishes to C, in the vacuum, or to more less than C, in a substantial middle of normal dispersion.
In all these events the phenomena of reflection, refraction and diffraction that result of the interaction of the electromagnetic wave and a substantial middle, are similar to them presented in the interaction that is produced with a mechanical wave that spreads among different substantial middle. But, it should be observed that the mechanisms of the interaction, of the mechanical and electromagnetic waves are essentially different. While that in the propagation of a mechanical wave, as the sound or a wave in the sea, among different middles, the mechanism of the interaction to ways occurs among atomic structures, to though, different with respect to its physical density. For example, when the wave of the sea crashes against a cliff the interaction that is produced is among the molecules of the water of sea and the molecules of the rocks of the cliff. Does not thus it occur with the electromagnetic wave, since the mechanisms of interaction are produced among fundamentally different structures of nature.
The laws that govern the mechanism of the interaction of a mechanical wave, being spread among substantial middle, of different materials, are the laws of the mechanical one Newtonian, applied to the collision among particles. On the other hand, the interaction among the electromagnetic wave and the regular substance by the laws of the quantum mechanics, of the processes of absorption and emission of radiation on the part of the atom.
The electromagnetic wave that goes to or leaves of a substantial middle , or passes through different substantial middle to ways is holds to the processes of the interaction of a structure of the field, that is the electromagnetic wave, with an atomic structure, under specific configurations, of the respective middle or substantial middle.
The interaction among the photon and the atom occurs among the scale of Planck, in which the matter is found organized from quanta of energy, and the microscopic scale (162) in which the matter is organized from atoms. That is to say, the interaction is among myriads of photons invisible to microscope, of the electromagnetic wave, by each atom of the substantial middle.
Nevertheless, that the mechanisms of the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the substantial middle are quite different to the mechanisms of the interaction of the mechanical wave, the same effects are produced of diffraction, reflection and refraction, with to most equal properties.
The main difference situates that, in said interaction, in the electromagnetic waves the phenomenon can be produced of rephase, unknown for the mechanical waves.
(160) The middle is constitute for fields and these are formed by quanta virtual and real. The virtual quanta are the transmitters of the forces exercised by the fields and the quanta real are the components of the waves that are generated and transmit in the fields.
(161) Propagation is the movement of a wave through middle.
(162) By means of the electronic microscope has been able to see the atomic structure, of any substantial material.
The electromagnetic wave, when reaches the limit among the middle in which spreads and one new, on the one hand, is returned that is the effect of reflection, and by the other is transmitted to new medium (163).
The energy of the primitive wave (164) is divided into the energies reflected, that remains in the native middle and the transmitted that passes to new middle. The wave that returns is the pulse (165) reflected. While, the disruption generated in the new middle is the pulse transmitted.
(163) When the light impacts on some materials the light reflects most totally, these are the opaque materials. On other materials the light refracts most totally, these are the material translucent or transparent. In the others, material the light reflects and refracts.
(164) This energy should be that of the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave. Therefore, is really physical the wave?
(165) A pulse is a singular disruption being moved through middle since a place to another.
In the pulse reflected the waves, that compose it, conserve the frequency, velocity (166) and length, and invest the phase and the sense of the direction of the primitive waves, also, reduce its amplitude (167).
When the primitive wave impacts not perpendicularly on the new middle, that is to say, form an angle with respect to the normal line, the pulse reflected maintains the same angle of the wave incident, to though, invested.
The waves that compose the pulse transmitted experience the effect of refraction, that consists of the changes of amplitude, rapidity and depending on the angle, with which it do, is able that, Also, the direction of the velocity; the waves conserve its direction when penetrate perpendicularly to new middle, that is to say with angle zero.
In all the cases, the refract waves maintain the phases and the frequencies of the primitive simple waves.
When the front of wave (168) penetrates to new middle, with a greater angle to zero, the waves, that came rectilinear, change its direction exactly to cross the limit, among the two middle, and continue being spread in straight line, on, in the new direction. The change in the direction obeys to the law of Snell, whose mathematical expression is:
n1 x sine of the angle of the primitive wave = n2 x sine of the angle of the pulse transmitted
where: n1 is the index of refraction of the native middle
n2 is the index of refraction of the new middle
The angles are measured with respect to the normal line.
When the electromagnetic wave passes to middle with density greater than the primitive middle, the length and the velocity of the wave diminish. If, on the contrary, the density of the new middle is less than that the primitive one the length and the velocity enlarge.
(168) It is the displacement of the electromagnetic wave in agreement cone a rectangular plan.
Mechanisms of the reflection and refraction are different for the mechanical waves and the electromagnetic waves. Thus:
In the mechanical waves, which are the propagation of a substantial disruption, the vibration of the molecules of the primitive middle, in the limit, begin to vibrate the molecules of the new middle, through their mutual collisions.
If the primitive middle is denser physically (169) that the new middle, the vibration is amplified in the new middle, for which enlarges the length of the wave and their velocity, due to that the moment transmitted, during the molecular collision, acts on a structure with smaller mass. The contrary thing occurs when is passed from a middle of smaller to another of greater density.
(169) The physical density is equal to the mass among the volume of the middle.
The electromagnetic wave always is expanded in the vacuum to the velocity of the photons C, still, in the case of when spreads in a substantial middle, for those photons, that move in the vacuum that exists among the molecules and atoms (170). Nevertheless, also, it is produced refraction but this is the effect of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with the atoms of the substantial middle.
The refraction consists that when the wave passes is produced absorption of photons on the part of the atoms, what begins to vibrate to the electrons. If the frequency of the photons absorbed is not resonant with the natural frequency (171) of vibration of the electrons, the energy absorbed is reemitted in the form of a new electromagnetic wave, with the same frequency of the original wave, due to that the electrons vibrate during a reduced time and inside small amplitude.
The change of the direction of the wave is produced by the different times in which the photons, components of the front of wave, reach to the atoms of the substantial middle, when the direction of the penetration forms an angle with the line of separation of the two interacting middle. The direction is maintained when the angle is zero.
The pulse transmitted is able, additionally, to lose energy, if some of its photons are absorbed resonant (172).
The photons emitted, during the emission of the new electromagnetic wave, can continue intervening in the cycle of absorption – emission of the interaction.
In normal dispersion the velocity of the pulse (173) is reduced with respect to when the wave spreads in an empty substantially middle, due to time of the retard of the cycle of absorption - emission that is presented during the interaction among the electromagnetic wave and the atoms. That is to say, though, the photons always travel to a velocity C, is also certain, that the wave, composed for trillions of photons is able, in the substantial middle, to fall its velocity under C.
In the interaction of the electromagnetic wave with a substantial middle, of more important, normal dispersion than the physical density is the optic density. Since, the reduction of the rapidity of the velocity of the wave depends mainly of the optic density (174) of the middle. Of such way, if the electromagnetic wave interacts with a substantial middle with a smaller optic density that another middle loses rapidity when passes to that middle. On the contrary, if the optic density of the new middle is smaller the rapidity of the wave transmitted enlarges. Provided that the electromagnetic wave passes from the vacuum to a substantial middle of normal dispersion its velocity and length diminish. An indicator of the optic density of the middle is the index of refraction of the substantial middle which is called n and the following equation is measured by means of:
n = Velocity of the electromagnetic wave in the vacuum / velocity of the electromagnetic wave in a substantial middle determined
The index of refraction of
the velocity of the electromagnetic wave in the vacuum is 1 and in the other
substantial middle of normal dispersion is greater that 1 or in an anomalous
middle, as the used by the group of
(170) The volume of a substantial middle in its greater part is empty. Particularly, the volume of an atom is practically empty.
(171) It is the frequency or frequencies in which the electron tends to vibrate when absorbs electromagnetic energy.
(172) It occurs when an electron is struck for a photon whose frequency is the same frequency of the natural frequency of the electron, which begins to vibrate it with a long amplitude, doing that collide with the neighboring atoms and the energy of its movement vibration become heat, case in which there is not emission of a wave with the same frequency from that of the photon incident, to ready of the energy is transmitted in the collision. The author proposes that the absorption resonant of the electromagnetic wave when it does that the atoms interact with other can generate a very weak mechanical wave.
(173) The speed of the pulse is acquaintance, also, as the velocity of phase of the electromagnetic wave.
(174) The optic density refers to long time of the movement vibration of the electrons before emitting. This type of density depends on the type of the atoms of a substantial specific middle.
(175) Nevertheless, if the velocity is taken superluminal, produced during the experiment carried out in Princeton, and it calculates the index of refraction its value results lesser than 1, and equal to 3 thousandth, which is not the index of refraction of the gas of cesium but the effect of the electromagnetic band of rephase. Additionally said velocity is that of group of the electromagnetic wave.
(176) In laboratory, since 1999, the velocity of the electromagnetic wave went reducing until, at the beginning of the 2001, becomes it zero. In These experiments, they were created regions of highest index of refraction, not existing in the nature.
In a mechanical wave when finds the limit, the molecules can interact with the molecules of the other middle and by the principle of reaction of Newton, the last molecules of the middle native suffer an action of the first molecules of the new middle, what generates in the wave reflected the investment of their phase, which to ways occurs when the wave passes from a middle less dense to another more dense.
Nevertheless, it is able that in the limit not interaction occur or that be very weak, by which the wave reflected preserve the phase of the primitive wave, which to ways occurs when the wave passes from more dense middle to another less dense. For example, for a parallel, cross wave to the normal line, of a vibrant cord if finishes in a fixed point, the molecules of the middle native, in the limit, push up the molecules of the second middle, which in reaction push downward to the molecules of the first middle, producing in the last crest or valley, that the wave of return have the phase invested. The length of wave reflected is the same length of the native wave, due to that the frequency and velocity are the same.
But, if the vibrant cord finishes in a free point is able that the vibration of the molecules of the limit not has interaction with those of the new middle and the wave reflected conserve the same phase, that is to say, the crests or valleys return without being invested.
As it is removed, the reflected wave is not the effect of the interaction among the molecules of the middle, but the consequence that, the propagation of the wave, reach the molecules terminals of the original middle.
The idea about the mechanism of the reflection is that of marine wave that, when it crashed against a cliff, produces a wave of return or is expanded in the water less dense of a river, which displaces to the most maximum limit in function of the energy that transports, that is to say, of its amplitude from which its return is produced, to the way of a rubber that after being stretched.
The wave transmitted always conserves its frequency, due to that was originated for the vibration with a specific frequency of the original and, also, preserve the phase of the primitive wave, due to that the molecules of the new middle are in principle in rest, regarding the wave, and any change will be in the same direction of the molecules incidents.
But on the other hand, has a smaller length the wave when passes from a middle less to one denser and greater length of wave in the contrary case.
A greater or smaller energy
is reflected in the collisions of the molecules exist among two middle,
according to the principle of action – reaction (177), of the mechanics of
- Of the angle of penetration of the primitive wave in the new middle, with respect to the divisor line of the two middle.
- And of the biggest or smaller physical density of the new middle with relation to primitive middle.
If the mass of the particles of the primitive middle is a great deal more less than the mass of the particles of the new middle, for example, during a vibration molecular movement of the water its collision against iron is produced, the force of reaction exercised by the molecules of the iron, on the molecules of water, will do that a reflected wave in the water be generated, without the action of the those of iron reach has to generate the movement of vibration of the molecules of the iron. In this case, the reflection will be total; that is to say, the effect will not be presented of refraction, due to that there will not be wave transmitted.
(177) To every action exercised by a particle on another an equal reaction corresponds and of contrary sense exercised by the second particle on the first one.
The mechanism of the reflection of the light can have to see with the pressure photonic, effect of Poynting – Robertson (178), on the middle in which impacts the electromagnetic wave and will be able to be in function of the amplitude (179) of the wave. This effect does not only transmit moment to medium but should bounce in inflexible, or to displace it, in elastic middle, to the way of the mechanical waves, which permits that the native front of wave be expanded to the limit of its energy done not transmit, from which initiates its return.
This it can be the effect of the electromagnetic wave in its integrity, as material concrete entity (180), and individual (181), when it impacts, since the vacuum or since a substantial middle, on another substantial middle.
(178) This effect puts in movement to the particles of dust and affects the movement of the artificial satellites.
(179) To greater amplitude of the greater wave is the number of photons that compose the wave.
(180) It constituted of myriads of photons.
(181) With behavior packaged in a wave.
The internal reflection total consists of the reflection of the entire light incident on the limit exists among two middle. This phenomenon only occurs when it presents the two following conditions:
- A ray of light passes from more dense middle to another less dense middle (182).
- The angle of incident of the ray of light is greater that the called critical angle.
When the angle of incident has a specific value the refraction occurs along the limit. This is the critical angle. Its value depends of the materials of that both middles are makes. Under the critical angle the refraction occurs inside the second middle. Over the critical angle refraction does not exist.
Mathematically the critical angle is the inverse one of the sine of the quotient of the indices of refraction of the middle less dense among that of the densest middle.
(182) This property of the electromagnetic wave occurs in a contrary way in front of the mechanical waves, where can be presented when a middle less dense interact with another denser middle.
In 1999, in
In this middle the velocity of a ray of light to 17 meters by second was reduced.
Since then has improved, this technology, to continue descending the velocities of group and phase of the light.
Recently, at the beginning of 2001, the light was stop and stored for its subsequent use.
The achievement of the velocity zero of the light was done for two different groups of scientists, in the universities of Harvard (184) and in Red Boulder. The information that transported the rays of light engraving on the atoms of a gas went.
Both groups, by means of different technologies, to though base on various lasers applied in different phases of the process, one of which is used of control and another is that of test, they created a substantial artificial middle with a highest index of refraction.
(183) The value of the index of refraction was 17.647.059.
(184) It directed by the physical Lene Hau, pioneering in the reduction of the velocity of the light who, in February of 1999, the achievement to descend to 17 meters by second.
220.127.116.11 Technology of Red
A pipe of glass, of 3 inches by ¾ of inch, was filled with vapor of Rubidium and helium, to a temperature near the point of boiling of the water.
The incident light ray on the gas was dispelled, by totally to be absorbed by the electrons.
The information, transported by the ray, was modulated binary by means of uniform changes in the spin of the electrons. For it two lasers were utilized. The first laser of control served to change the typical form in which the light is absorbed for the atoms, that is to say, producing that the even electrons to an orbital one with greater quantum number to that were. Through the action of the laser of control the atoms remain prepared so that for to absorb light and they changed the orientation of the spin of its electrons, well to the up the orientation or down. The second laser supplied the test light ray, with the information that engraving went binary in the electrons.
When the gas was submitted again to laser of control, the atoms emitted an identical pulse to incident ray of the second laser, being recovered totally the information previously encumbered. The information went encumbered during hundreds of microseconds.
18.104.22.168 Technology of Harvard
This technology reduced the velocity of the light, by means of the super cooling off of a sodium vapor gas, confined in a chamber submitted to a super high empty (185) and to magnetic fields.
The velocity of the electromagnetic wave decreases with the descent of temperature, proper to increase in the physical density (186) of the middle.
The temperature of the atoms is related to their energy kinetic, therefore, techniques are used to descend this energy and thus to achieve the descent of the temperature. The energy kinetic of an atom is low when is struck it with a photon and absorbs it in contrary direction to its movement. In general, the cycle of absorption - emission of an atom occurs when the photon possesses the frequency of resonance of the atom.
Proper, of the effect Doppler an apparent frequency of resonance exists for the atoms that travel in contrary direction to the photons. By means of the technique of laser called detuning (187) causes coincides the frequency of the photons radiated with that apparent frequency, induced in the atoms by the Doppler. In this way, is done that the atoms absorb photons that reduce their energy kinetic and they be chilled.
In the experiment, the gas of sodium was chilled to a thousand millionths (188) of degree on the absolute zero of Kelvin.
Less than 435 nano Kelvin the phenomenon of condensation of Bose – Einstein is produced (189) that consist of the step of the gas to a new state of the substance (190). The atoms lose its individuality and being melted pass to the form of a super atom.
The gas of sodium acquires a consistency seemed to leads, that the light cannot cross. This super atom floats, due to the action of the powerful magnetic fields, without touching the walls of the chamber.
In previous experiments, by means of the application of a second laser, of light of a private color, itself achievement that the otherwise impossible, opaque right-wing sodium, leave to pass a fraction of the test light ray and return translucent, acquiring a plastic constitution.
This phenomenon is proper to effect of blockade of the process of absorption by the atoms, because the electrons easily cannot pass to an orbital subsequent one to that are found, on account of the own, quantum effect of interference of this state of substance condensed. Since the absorption is partially inhibited, a fraction of the ray of light is capable to cross, this fifth substantial state, to a velocity considerably reduced, which went of 17 meters by second, in the pioneering experiment. This it is the effect of transparency electromagnetic induced.
In the experiment in which stopped the light the gas was submitted to a greater cooling off, which produced that the ray of the light of test remain totally trapped in the atoms of the gas.
The cooling off of the gas (191), initially hot, is produced utilizing several techniques. Initially, by the application of a laser of control that, utilizing a population of three sub levels (192), progressively uncharged the atoms of the gas, causing radiating very brilliant light. By a new action of a laser of control the movement aleatory of the atoms is ordered in an only direction; each time that an atom, progressively with smaller velocity and especially tight with the other atoms, strikes to a photon, the atom is launched in the opposite direction to which came, being done increasingly more slow and colder, by loss of energy kinetic and very weak radiation.
This discharge of the atoms causes that reduce progressively its movements until remaining practically stopped, thus the atoms conforming the super atom.
Al final of the process, known as cooling off evaporated, the atoms, radiated again with light, are launched out of the action of the magnetic fields.
The engraved information during five times more than the interim reached in Red Boulder.
(185) Hundreds of trillions lower that the pressure of the air on the Land.
(186) A greater number of atoms by volume.
(187) Laser is tuning inside a different frequency from the natural frequency of the atom (Detuning).
(189) Bose and Einstein, in 1924, they proposed that the atoms in next temperatures to absolute zero of Kelvin should form a tight right-wing state of atoms, forming what Hau calls a globe of solid substance, with capacity of producing waves that behave like waves of radio.
(190) The other substantial states are the solid, liquid, gaseous and plasma.
(191) The technique of cooling off using radiation went proposal,
in 1975, by Theodor Hansch and Arthur Schawlow for neutral atoms. The
Bose-Einstein condensation state was achieved, in 1995, by Carl Weiman in the
(192) Hyperfine states discharged 1> , 2> and it excited 3>.
In the world, since 1992, in
laboratory superluminal velocities are produced. Mainly, these velocities, have
utilizing the technology tunnel, employed by the pioneering group of
Gain Assisted has his theoretical bases in the concept, formulated in 1910, by Sommerfeld and Brillouin that of that the velocity of group, in the propagation of the electromagnetic waves, can surpass C, without opponent resulting to the Relativity of Einstein and in the study of the behavior of a pulse Gaussian inside an anomalous region carried out, in 1970, by Garret and McCumber and verified experimentally, in 1982, by Chu.
This knowledge permitted, to
The group of
Gain Assisted, uses technology laser, in a transparent anomalous region of little absorption, created inside two lines of Gain Assisted, to produce the phenomenon of rephase of a test light pulse, that causes travels through is region. The transparency of the middle is natural and not the electromagnetic induced, used in the experiments to stop the light.
In this chapter develops the theoretical base and the application of the technology Gain Assisted for the production of superluminal velocities.
An individual or simple wave (193) possesses an only frequency that extends to infinite.
The function of wave depends on the position and the time. In any fixed instant the function of a simple wave, considered on a plan, various sinusoidal along an axis x. And for any fixed position the various function of sinusoidal wave with the time. A complete cycle of the wave can be associated with an angular displacement of 2 π radians.
The angular frequency (194) ω of a wave is the number of radians by unit of time, in a fixed position. The number of wave k is the number of radians by unit of distance in a fixed time. In terms of these parameters the function of wave it expresses:
A (t, x) = A0 cos (kx – w t)
A is the amplitude of the wave and A0 is the maximum amplitude of the function of wave.
The combination of two or more waves of different angular frequency and length generates a wave that wraps them. Likewise, being the enveloping wave of the amplitudes of a wave.
The enveloping wave or resultant of the sum of two waves is obtained with the following function:
A (x, t) = 2cos(kx – ω t) cos (Δ kx – Δ t)
(193) The simple wave is ideal, since physically what exist are packages of waves, thus be, inside a closely band.
(194) The angular frequency measures the frequency of change of the phase that is to say, of the step of crest to valley, or vice versa.
In the practice the phase of wave is defined like the interval among two maximums, most minimum or zeros consecutive points of the wave.
Due to that ω is the number of radians of the wave that pass in a position by unit of time and 1/k is the spatial length of the wave by radiate, then the velocity of the wave is the number of radians of the wave that pass in a position by unit of time, divided among the spatial length of the wave by radian, that is to say, v = ω / k or velocity in which the form of the wave it is moving.
The velocity in which any fixed phase of the cycle it displaces, is called phase velocity of the wave.
The velocity of phase is defined for waves of a same frequency and length that present its phase synchronized, that is to say, views since the front of wave all the front presents exact coincidence in phase, to ready well be of crest or valley, this is, coincident to a same length of the source of the wave. Consequently, the velocity of phase refers to an electromagnetic wave confined to an only frequency and length of wave, thus for the luminous spectrum will be a specific color, for example, the red color.
The velocity of phase adopted conventionally is that of the front of a wave (195), of a specific frequency and length.
The velocity of phase, vf, also, it expresses in terms of the cycle of the angular frequency w and of the length of wave l, by means of the equation:
vf = λ x ω ; that is to say, length wave times the angular frequency
The velocity of phase of the electromagnetic wave is the velocity with which the photons are moving in the vacuum or in a substantial middle with which interact. Nevertheless, due to that a wave in general does not imply flows of causality on any physical effect, not a most maximum limit for the velocity of phase of the wave exists, by which necessarily should not correspond to the energy transportation velocity or of a sign, for which supposedly the limit of velocity exists C (196).
A sign always is not a simple periodic wave; also, a sign can be not a simple periodic wave. By this the notion of phase results an ambiguous notion. Under the context that the velocity of the sign is equal to the velocity of phase of the wave, then, this is defined like the velocity of the edge where begins the head or finishes the queue of the wave. The transportation of a sign implies to modulate the sign with the frequency or the amplitude of a wave of transportation.
(195) The front of wave is the surfaces defined by the place that occupies the points of wave that have the same phase. The front of wave is perpendicular to ray that represents the electromagnetic wave. For parallel rays the front of wave is plan. For divergent rays since a point or convergences toward a point, the front of wave is aspheric. For rays that vary of divergence or convergence, the front of wave, has other forms, such as ellipsoids or paraboloides, depending on the nature of the source. To ways, the plan in which the vectors of the magnetic and electric fields conjugate is tangent to every point of the front of wave. The vector that represents the front of wave indicates the direction of propagation of the wave. It should be distinguished of the front of head of a pulse.
(196) Theory of the Relativity of Einstein.
In the reality, what exist are packages of waves due to that in our Universe (197) the origin of the electromagnetic wave are the processes of absorption – emission of photons on the part of the atoms, it which radiate inside a rank of components spectrals, in exchange for a pure and only frequency.
The superimposition of two nearby frequencies waves produce groups or packages of waves. The crest of an individual wave travels with the velocity of phase, which is identical to the velocity of the wave; the packages of waves travel with the velocity of group (198).
Therefore, the velocity of group is defined for a mixture of waves of different frequency and is for convention the velocity with which spreads the peak of a package of waves.
The velocity of phase of the composed waves constituted by two or more simple waves is Δ w / Δ k. And due to that, these waves, contain an internal group of waves, its velocity of phase is called velocity of group.
The wave is an energy transportation phenomenon. The energy spreads with the velocity of group, being able to be moved quicker or slower than the individual waves provided that according to the Relativity do not surpass C. This is called dispersion.
(197) Not thus it occurs during the Big-Bang when, without existing atoms, the electromagnetic wave is originated from the supergravity. Which it tests the existence of the transition among gravitons and photons, to super highest energies that the author demands since 1969.
(198) The velocity of group is the velocity with which the energy spreads (Brillouin and Sommerfeld).
A pulse of light, of finite duration, is necessarily the sum of an infinite number of waves of different phases, lengths, and frequencies. These waves interfere constructively, being reinforced in some places where the phases coincide, and destructively in other places of the waves, where the phases are cancelled.
The total result of the interference of the waves is the form of the pulse, which presents its peak in the zone where the major number of waves are reinforced and the minimums in the zones where the major number of waves are cancelled, placed to both sides of the zone that presents the peak, in the case of the pulse Gaussian (199).
A pulse light of a micro duration is a combination of waves of different frequency, inside a very narrow band of rank.
The velocity of the pulse is the velocity of group while the components travel to its own velocity of phase.
(199) It is called queues.
The velocity of phase and group in the vacuum is the same speed and equal to the velocity of the photons that compose the package of waves, that is to say, equal to C. This is due to that in the vacuum the velocity of phase is the same speed for any frequency and, therefore, the velocity of the group equal to the only velocity of phase. Now, that only velocity of phase is C, because, the difference of energy among the photons that compose each wave of different frequency and different length of wave in the vacuum is not prominent and all the photons travel in a continuous way to the velocity C.
In any another middle, that do not be the vacuum, the interaction that suffer the photons, with the atoms components of the middle, produces that the velocity of the wave differ of the velocity of the photon, as a result of that the waves are facts of photons and these are subject to absorption.
In substantial middle, of normal dispersion, the interaction of the photon with the atoms, cause a retard, but, in the anomalous middle, advancement in the traffic of the wave with respect to when the wave spreads in the vacuum. The retard is different for photons of different energy, due to the difference of the interim of the cycle absorption – emission of the photons on the part of the atoms. This interim depends on the type of atoms that compose the material, of a substantial medium determined, and of the energy of each type of photons.
Thus, in a same substantial middle, the photons of waves of different frequency possess different time of interaction with the atoms and the photons of a same energy possess different time of interaction in different substantial middle. The result is that the velocity of the photon, phase, and group pass to be different.
In substantial middle of normal dispersion, while the photon conserves the velocity C, the phase and the group have different velocities and lesser than C. In the anomalous middle the velocity of group surpasses C.
So much the velocity of group as the velocity of phase depend on the middle through which spreads the wave to cause that a fixed relation among the number of wave exists k and the angular frequency of the wave w , dependent of the middle. This fixed relation this determined by the index of refraction, which is equal to C / vf.
But, the velocity of an electromagnetic wave in a middle is C / n (v), where n (v) is the index of refraction, which so much of the constitution of a middle specific one depends as of the frequency of the wave. Of such way, those different frequencies in a same middle possess different velocities.
On the other hand, a relation among the velocity of group exists and the velocity of phase as continues:
- In the vacuum and in middle not dispersive are equals. So much of the long waves as of the short waves, all the crests travel to the same velocity.
- In normal dispersion, characterized because the index of refraction is directly proportional to number of wave and to the frequency of the wave incident, the velocity of group is smaller to the velocity of phase. This it is because the components of high frequency are diminished more than the components of low frequency. Besides, any sign modulated spreads with a lower velocity of group to C.
As the index of refraction enlarges with the increment of the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, each frequency travels with a different velocity. The velocity is increased with the length of the wave. The crests of the long waves travel quicker than the crests of the short waves.
The value of n (v) is greater that 1 which produces in a pulse that suffer a retard, in front of when the pulse moves in the vacuum.
- In anomalous dispersion
the velocity of group is greater to the velocity of phase. These middles are
characterized because the index of refraction is inversely proportional to
number of wave and to the frequency of the wave incident, that is to say,
decreases when the number of wave is increased or the frequency of the wave,
which produces that the low frequencies change less than the high. In the case
of the middle used in
The energy, in the mechanical waves, is transported quicker than the crests of the waves and the short waves travel quicker than the long waves. As consequence, the velocity of group is greater that the velocity of phase and is able in the electromagnetic waves even to come to be greater that C.
In that case, the physicists at present discuss that the electromagnetic wave can transport energy or a sign with the velocity of group (200), since the velocity of phase, of all the waves constituents, are lesser than C.
An anomalous region, related to electromagnetic waves, in the nature has a strongly absorbent behavior.
In the middle where the effect tunnel is produced are amputated the frequency of the electromagnetic waves and the velocity of phase can surpass C, while the velocity of group remains lesser than C.
These middle, for example, are the magnetic conductors holes, called guides of waves (201), that impede the propagation of low frequencies and trim the high. Similar to as the pipes of an organ only permit certain sounds resonant.
(200) Arnold Sommerfeld and Lion Brillouin, in theoretical works, facts in the beginnings of the century XX, maintain that due to the strong absorption and distortion of the middle opaque, own one of an anomalous region, does that the group velocity notion do not have sense. With this base they did a demonstration that neither energy nor information is able, inside an anomalous region, to travel surpassing C.
(201) The guides of waves are utilized, by the group of Colonia, to reach velocities of phase superluminal, by means of the technology tunnel.
In 1970, Geoffrey Garret and Of McCumber that of the Bell Laboratories, in US, in a theoretical demonstration they established that was possible to produce a pulse Gaussian undistorted with an upper velocity of group that C, provided that the region through the one that the pulse trip be short and the pulse have a wide strait. In 1982, this experimentally it was confirmed for Steven Chu and Stephen Wong.
On, various experiments have been carried out; where utilizing different technologies, velocities of phase have been generated or greater group that C, that has been called superluminal (202). Not thus for the velocity of the photon (203).
At present, is discussed if has been transported or not energy or signs to a greater velocity that C (204).
(202) Not only in anomalous
regions but still in the vacuum, as is the case of the superluminal experiments
carried out in
(203) In the experiments of
(204) The professor doctor Gunter Nimtz assures that yes.
- Of the existence of the notion that the velocity of transportation of the energy is the velocity of group.
- To be employed the same equation for the calculation of the velocity of groups when is lesser than the velocity of phase and when the result is the opponent.
- And of not being objected, in the first case, that the velocity of transportation of the energy can be lower to the velocities of phase of the waves constituents.
When, in the other case, is presented that the energy can be transported with a greater velocity of group that the velocities of phase this is said is impossible and, then, the velocity of group no longer is the velocity of transportation of the energy.
Surely, would nothing be objected neither there would be reelaboration of the notion of the transportation of the energy, with the velocity of group, of not being that this velocity can surpass the velocity C.
Which is the velocity of transportation of the energy or of a sign? It is not the velocity of phase, since a sign requires of a wave of transportation and of the wave of the sign and, if is a matter of the transportation of energy, also, the velocity of phase has surpassed C.
The problem of fund is the theoretical framework used, which based on the Relativity of Einstein, prohibits be able the mass, energy or information to travel quicker than C. If as, for example, proposes it Tom Van Flandern, it is utilized the Relativity of Lorentz the energy transportation velocities and of information above C are possible.
Nevertheless, the physical problem is the strong distortion suffered by the pulse of light, due to that a large quantity of its energy is absorbed, when its velocity of group surpasses C.
This great absorption does that the velocities of transportation so much of the energy as of the information remain more less than C and left behind in front of the velocity of the peak of the wave (206).
Therefore, when it seems is a matter of a technical problem whose solution depends on reducing to not significant levels the loss of energy (207).
In the superluminal experiments carried out, in the past 10 years, with the technology tunnel the energy transmitted has been too much scarce, but, of all ways energy has been transmitted.
(205) The superluminal velocities reached have done confused the concepts of the velocities of the energy, sign and group, the ones that can coincide or not.
(206) But, the peak of all ways represents energy.
(207) The group of Princeton utilized a middle transparent one, inside two lines of Gain Assisted, so that the edge of head of the pulse, that was the one that entered to the chamber, to suffer very little absorption and, on the contrary, to receive necessary electromagnetic energy for its process of rephase .
This experiment was carried out, in April of 2000, in Princeton, by the group of Lijun Wang, Alaxander Kuzmitch, and Arthur Dogariu, in the NEC Research Institute, US.
In this superluminal experiment, by means of the technology Gain Assisted, manages to maintain, without suffering important distortion, a test light pulse and to surpass the velocity C, in a transparent anomalous middle of dispersion.
But, cloning the pulse from the destructive interference of the waves that compose it, inside the front of its title, by Gain Assisted, which conducts to reproduce it advanced and has that the pulse at the outset of the superluminal region, to though equal and built from the same pulse, is not pulse of entrance.
This it creates the impression that energy has been transported above C. Nevertheless, the physically extraordinary fact is that two points of the space were bound through a velocity superluminal 310 times C, without violation of the principle of causality existing. This communication above the velocity C, the author, since 1969, and the scientific American Tom Van Flandern, since 1998, demands it for the phenomenon of the gravitation.
The experiment of
The physical base, of this experiment, is analogous to effect that the normal regions of dispersion produce on the electromagnetic waves, but, contrary because utilizes the atomic process of emission to provide photons to pulse in exchange for removing them to him and, therefore, produces a contrary result, as is that of enlarging the velocity of group above C, proper to phenomenon of rephase of the pulse, only possible in the electromagnetic phenomenon. The effects of the transparent region of anomalous dispersion, among two lines of Gain Assisted, are:
1. The natural cycle of absorption of the atoms is scarce, on account of the weak interaction among the atoms and the waves of the pulse of test, as a result of the transparent nature of that region, that is to say, to its little physical density.
2. On the other hand, the two lines of gain, inside which that region has been created, produces the effect that the electromagnetic waves components of a pulse that cross it, by means of the process of gain assisted the pulses receive energy of the existing atoms in a substantial middle, which are forced to suffer transition Raman (208) and has to place photons, inside the an envelope Gain region the front of head test.
The most prominent
characteristics of the experiment of
- For the first time, reaching an upper velocity that C, the form of the pulse of the light of test is conserved, without great attenuation, amplification or distortion.
- The velocity of group surpasses 310 times the velocity C.
- The velocity of group superluminal is an effect of the interaction photon-photon, among a ray of light and an anomalous middle of Gain Assisted, enriched in photons (209).
By means of the novel technology Gain assisted (210), in an anomalous region of dispersion, but, with properties of a transparent middle, was created a class of optic machine clones of pulses (211).
(208) by means of lasers, the technique of transition Raman achieves the manipulation of the emission of photons, on the part of the atoms of a middle, placing the photons inside a specific electromagnetic band, created inside the middle. This band stores energy and returns an anomalous region of Gain Assisted, with maximums in the frequencies that enclose the band.
(209) The interaction photon-photon is little acquaintance. The
(210) Which it utilizes a natural region of transparency, there is difference of the electromagnetic transparency induced, as it does Lene Hau in its experiments to stop the light.
(211) Middle that it stores electromagnetic energy.
A gas of cesium, to 30 centigrade degrees, was placed in a chamber of glass Pyrex, covered with paraffin (212), of 6 centimeters of length, under a magnetic field uniform, parallel to the direction of propagation of the light.
This field produces the effect Zeeman promoting and separating the sub levels of energy of the structure hyperfine. The fundamental purpose went to generate two frequencies, very closed, pertaining to the states discharged ½ 1> and ½ 2>, of an atomic population of three states.
In the experiment they were used three lasers, two of control and the third of test.
Using light polarized, of the two lasers of control, by means of the technique of optician pumps, applied to an atomic population of three states, the electrons of the shells more externs (213), closely the totality of the atoms of the gas of cesium, were positions in the state discharged ½ 1> (214), colder of the assembly of the 16 quantum states, to a next temperature to absolute zero of Kelvin(215), which does not occur in the nature, since a normal population of atoms, as initially was the vapor of cesium, presents certain significant quantity of them in state excited, besides, to a temperature environment.
The technique to put the electrons in a specific atomic quantum state, using a combination of light polarized and the decay natural of the atoms to a discharged state is that of optician pumps (216). This technique went used for first to put the most totality of the atoms of the cesium in the state ½ 1>. In the optician pumps there was control of the effect Doppler, due to which the experiment was carried out in conditions of to most rest of the atoms. Then, Gain Assisted, by means of the two lasers of control, was produced two intense continuous rays of light, with different frequency, inside a narrow band, adjusted to interior of the structure hyperfine, in the sub levels of energy of the discharged state ½ 1> and the excited state ½ 3> (217).
Inside the band a transparent anomalous region is created, among the two lines of gain (218), notably separated so much of the discharged state ½ 1> as of the excited state ½ 3>, to though, intermeddled among these two levels of energy.
A pulse of test is emitted on the transparent anomalous region, whose edge of head when it penetrated it causes that transition Raman occur (219) in the atoms of cesium.
Simultaneous to the entrance of the front of head, of the pulse of test, inside the anomalous region, the lasers of control send energy to the atoms of the cesium since the two lines of gain. The atoms of cesium in the discharged state ½ 1> absorb the energy pumped by the lasers of control and by reemission place it inside the anomalous zone, while pass to discharged state ½ 2> (220). In this way, the narrow electromagnetic band, among the two specific frequencies of gain, receives energy of the atoms of cesium and power the energy of the waves, that in destructive interference, compose the edge of head of the pulse of test, generating its process of rephase .
The pulse of test produces it the third laser, called of test, with a frequency closed to state ½ 2> and with smaller intensity that that of the rays of the laser of control. The edge of the front of head of the pulse of the laser of test travels to negative velocity of group -C/310 inside the medium assets, which signifies that without to have entered the peak of the pulse of test is obtained a peak retorts at the outset. Before, that the transition be produced Raman, the edge of the front of head of the pulse of test experiences a small gain to enter to medium, to most without reflection, that compensates any loss that the pulse could suffer. If the frequency of the pulse is out of the anomalous region the pulse would travel under the velocity C. This speed >C is only inside of the transparent anomalous region of gain and only in the terms of the velocity of group of wave.
The pulse of test presents its peak where the majority of the frequencies of its waves components coincide in phase, but, in the edge that precedes it the frequencies are out of phase.
The edge of the pulse of test to begin to enter the anomalous region suffers the effect of refraction, with an index closed to 1, but, with slightly negative slope, in front of the frequencies of the pulse of test incident (221), which causes change immediately the long frequencies in short and vice versa, maintaining all the necessary information to reconstruct the original pulse to the exit of the anomalous region.
The entrance of the edge of the front of the ray causes that the excess of energy, by means of the transition Raman, initiate the process of absorption - emission of the atoms of cesium, existing out of the transparent region, without the light of the ray of the laser of test reach these atoms.
Which it produces by on the part of the atoms of cesium, the emission of photons on the anomalous region because power the process of rephase of the edge of the pulse of test and in the limit at the outset of the chamber be produce by reflection a first pulse retorts of the pulse and due to the high energy stored in the region be produce by refraction a second pulse, Also retorts because
The peak of the pulse refracted to the exit of the chamber, leaves before that the peak of the pulse of test have entered to the chamber. As a result of the advance with velocity –C/310 that suffers the pulse of test inside the chamber the pulse refracted of light leaves 310 quicker times with respect to when the pulse of test crosses in the vacuum the same distance of the anomalous region.
This pulse refracted abandons the chamber 60 nanoseconds before that the pulse of test it to have done, time in which the pulse refracted travels through 18,8 meters far from the chamber. The velocity of group of the wave is greater that C because the gain of the first anomalous region affects the edge of the front of the pulse of test.
In turn the pulse reflected traveled, in direction of the pulse of test, to a negative velocity -C/300, that is to say, 300C, with which was found at the moment of the entrance from its peak to the anomalous region. The peak of the pulse of test and the peak of the pulse reflected when they find occur the destructive phenomenon of interference of their wave components and they finished mutually being cancelled.
So much the pulse reflected like the refracted are essentially equal to test pulse.
(212) in order to reduce to most minimum the distortion of the polarization of the spin of the electrons, in the state discharged, which is produced by the collisions of the atoms against the walls of the chamber.
(213) In the atom of Cesium the electrons can be in 16 quantum states.
(214) In the sublevel of the structure hyperfine F = 4, m = -4.
(215) The absolute zero of Kelvin equals to - 273 centigrade degrees.
(216) Alfred Kastler, in 1966, gained the prize Nobel by its development.
(217) Sublevel of energy F = 4, m=-3 of the state excited 6P3/2
(218) D1 and D2.
(219) The transition Raman, in the experiment, consist of that the atoms of cesium pass, inside the structure hyperfine, of the state discharged) ½ 1> to discharged state ½ 2>, of greater level of energy, and additionally, produce radiation of very weak energy. The Raman transition is caused by means of the action of lasers on the atoms of the middle.
(220) Sublevel of the structure hyperfine F = 4, m=-2
(221) An index of refraction with pending negative does not signify an index of refraction negative. The doctor Aephraim Steinberg declared me that the index of refraction was closed to 1, which does not signify that did not vary smoothly, causing the effect of the pending negative, during the interaction of the waves of the pulse with the anomalous region.
An electromagnetic pulse Gaussian, as the used of test, presents the form of a bell with fronts of queue and head (222) of amplitude zero. And, the front of head of the pulse Gaussian is extended to infinite.
The peak of a pulse is presented where the major number of waves that compose coincide it in phase, due to that all the phases are reinforced, by constructive interference. On the contrary, the minimums of the pulse appear where the major number of waves are found out of phase, due to that by destructive interference the phases are cancelled. This occurs in the fronts of queue and head.
Inside the transparent anomalous region, among the two lines of gain, the pulses propagation phenomenon in dispersive middle is produced.
Any middle different to vacuum is dispersive middle, which signifies that the waves components of a pulse travel to different velocities inside the middle while in the vacuum all travel to the velocity C.
The dispersive medium can be opaque, when absorbs resonant the light and produces radiation of microwave, which is known like a highly absorbent middle.
Or the dispersive medium can be transparent when leaves to pass well part of the light incident without suffering the process of absorption, that is to say, little absorbent.
These dispersive middle can be normal when reduce the velocity of group of the waves components of a pulse under C or anomalous when enlarge the velocity of group above C.
The middle used for the
production of superluminal velocities had been opaque. And, on the contrary, the
transparent middle, to though electromagnetic induced, had been utilized to
reduce until stopping the velocity of the light. The problem of the opaque
middle is that it weakens and distorts in excess the pulse that is obtained at
the outset. With the technology Gain Assisted the group of
Nevertheless, this it is relative since the pulse at the outset is not that of entrance, but from the pulse of entrance is created for constructive interference the pulse at the outset. Thus same, a velocity of phase does not exist greater that C, inside the anomalous middle, since the velocity of the individual waves of the pulse incident to ways is closely adjusted to C, but is the result for the velocity of group of the pulse that appears to the exit, by appearing advanced respect to pulse of test.
The primitive concept of Gain signifies amplification and here exactly the constructive phenomenon of interference of the electromagnetic waves in a transparent anomalous region. This it is at the front of the pulse incident, that is extensive to infinite, is composed of waves totally out of phase, constituting a minimum, which in the anomalous middle pass gradually to be coincident in phase, process of rephase, and, therefore, to generate the most maximum peak of a new pulse that is advanced in front of the incident. The totality of the process of rephase retorts the pulse incident.
As a result of a transparent, anomalous region, velocities can be obtained:
1 Superluminal, in the sense, that a pulse in the middle is obtained at the outset, that is the adjacent middle to anomalous, advanced respect to step of the pulse incident inside the anomalous middle.
2. With time of traffic equal to zero, when a pulse in the at the outset, simultaneous middle with the step of the pulse incident inside the anomalous middle is obtained, of such way, the peak of the pulse created by constructive interference, appears in the exit to time that the peak of the pulse incident enters to middle anomalous.
3. With negative time of traffic, when the peak of the pulse created by constructive interference, appears in the exit before that the peak of the pulse incident enters to middle anomalous.
The difference, among these three possible results, depends on the strong thing that is the transparent anomalous region in energy.
(222) It is called queue of the left side and queue of the right side.
The experiment superluminal
carried out in
Inside such structures the scientists are born, educated and exercise its practical professional (224).
Among the bad
interpretations of the test of
We suppose 11 runners that participate in a circuit of 11 returns, forming a series, separated each one of the next one for 5 kilometers that move to 30 kilometers per hour.
Each time that complete a return, when it crosses the goal, it is added a new running one to that goes to the head, for to replace of the runner of queue that abandons the career.
In this manner when it completed the 11 returns the series of the 11 runners that left in row India now arrive to time forming a front rectilinear and only the runner that left from first he finishes, due to that the remainders gradually were replaced.
In this modality of competence the sixth runner of departure agreed he represented the velocity of the group, when finished the return this runner he moved 30 kilometers respect to first of departure, then the velocity of group was greater that the individual velocities of all, including the own one.
With this experiment
thought, that supposedly explains that of
Nevertheless, to explain
correctly the test of
(223) Yet it has been it theoretically, to see: The experiments indicate that the velocity of the gravity is minimum 20 thousand million times C. Alfonso Guillén. Santafé of Bogotá. 2001.
(224) According to Woody Allen, “to change the world children are required that in exchange for being fall in love with White Snows fall in love with the witch”.
Nevertheless, that the interference among waves, in which form other composed, is a physical phenomenon and, not a simple mathematical convention, that the velocity of group greater than the velocities of phase is verified in the marine waves and that in the terms of a basic and even popular knowledge is fully accepted that the velocity of the light in the vacuum returns smaller, in the regions of normal dispersion, on the other hand, it so happens that when returns greater, in the anomalous regions of dispersion, for many physicists, of recognized prestige, apparently is a lacking effect of physical sense.
The superluminal velocities
achieved, since the decade of the 90, of the century 20, by different teams of
scientists in different places of the world have come it interpreted with the
theories based on the Relativity of Einstein, that is to say, inside a framework
where are impossible. The scientists that have produced believe them that it
treats in fact explained with ideas based in the past, to though, timidly they
present their doubts, and they endeavor because their experiments turn out to be
forceful, showing the extraordinary find. This happening somewhat similar to
what happened with the discovery of
Since 1969, the author demands that the gravitatory interaction occurs with a greater velocity that speed of the photon, and nevertheless this phenomenon does not violate the principle of causality, to though, refutes the erroneous conception of the Relativity of Einstein about the world. In 1998, the scientific American one Tom Van Flandern reckoned that the velocity of the propagation of the gravity is minimum 20 thousand million times that of the photon and he presents the need to abandon the theory of the Relativity of Einstein. The diverse superluminal experiments thus are beginning it to indicate.
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